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Słownik Geograficzny Translations

Mączniki

Mączniki: ... 2) village and estate, Sroda powiat; the estate has an area of 1,366 mórgs, 8 houses, 132 inhabitants, all Catholic, 48 illiterate. The Catholic parish church belongs to Sroda deanery. The post office, highway, telegraph and railway stations are in Sroda, 3 km. away. The village of Mączniki at one time belonged to the pastors of the Poznan cathedral, and they are probably the ones who built the parish church there; it already existed by the first half of the 15th century. It was made of wood and burned down several times; the current one was consecrated by Poznan suffragan bishop Wierzbowski in 1701. At present Mączniki and Bagrowo usually have one pastor. The Mączniki estate is now the property of Wlodzimierz Wolniewicz. Mączniki parish, of Sroda deanery, has 1,145 souls, with a branch church in Bagrowo. 

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1885, vol. 6, p. 216]

 

This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Summer 2000 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".


Marcinkowo Dolne

2) village in Mogilno County, 3 homes, 16 inhabitants all Catholics, 11 illiterates. Stagecoach and telegraph station in Gasawa 5km, by macadam road 3km. Railway station in Mogilno 23km away.

 

3) Estate, 1403 morgs of land, 135 inhabitants, 4 Evangelics, 131 Catholics, 10 homes. The proprietor is Stanislaw Jasinski.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1885, vol. 6, p. 106] 


Marcinkowo Górne

4) village in Mogilno County, 5 homes, 42 inhabitants, 6 Evangelics, 36 Catholics, 9 illiterates. Stagecoach and telegraph station in Gasawa 2km. Railway station in Mogilno 20km or Jankowo (Asse) 11km away.

 

5) Estate, 1939 morgs of land, 157 inhabitants, 1 Evangelic, 156 Catholics, 66 illiterates. The proprietor is Hieronim Karski.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1885, vol. 6, p. 106]

 

This translation, by Alice Nelsen, is used by permission.


Masłowice

1) a village and manorial farmstead, Wieluń county, Starzenice district, Ruda parish, 6 km. from Wieluń, 7 from the river Warta. It has a distillery and water mill; the village has 61 houses, 477 inhabitants; the farmstead has 7 houses. in 1827 there were 38 houses and 389 inhabitants. This village is mentioned in Laski's Liber beneficiorum [Book of Benefices] (vol. II, 111). The Masłowice estate consists of the farmsteads of Masłowice, Stawek, and Małyszyn; and the villages: Masłowice, Małyszyn, Borowiec, and Stawki, covering 2,040 mórgs. The manorial farmstead of Masłowice has 360 mórgs of farmland and gardens, 156 of meadows, 10 of pastureland, 883 of woods, 63 unused and squares, for a total of 1,422; it has 13 brick buildings, 16 of wood, with a 9-field crop rotation. The farmstead of Stawek has 278 mórgs of farmland and gardens, 41 of meadows, 5 of unused land and squares, for a total of 325, with 3 wooden buildings and a 9-field crop rotation.  The farmstead of Małyszyn has 261 mórgs of farmland and gardens, 21 of meadows, 12 of unused land and squares, for a total of 294 mórgs, with 5 brick buildings, 4 wooden ones, and a 7-field crop rotation. The village of Masłowice has 72 settlements, with 392 mórgs of land; the village of Małyszyn has 10 settlements with 128 mórgs of land; the village of Borowiec has 12 settlements with 74 mórgs of land; and the village of Stawki has 26 settlements, with 231 mórgs of land.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1885, vol. 6, p. 165]

 

This translation was completed by William F. Hoffman, for PolishRoots.


Mchy

1) also Emchen, a village in the Śrem district; 19 houses, 214 people, 10 protestant, 204 catholic, 60 unable to read.

 

2) Mchy - the manor has 6164 acres (morgs) of which 2000 are forest; 28 houses, 546 people, 16 protestant, 530 catholic, 201 cannot read.

 

3) Mchy - the parish has 374 acres (morgs) with one mill used to run an alcohol business; brick production is here including an oven for baking. The parish and church belong to the deanery of Borecki. The post office is in Ksiaz about 4 kilometers away. The headquarters of the manor (folwark) is 5 kilometers away. The railroad station is in Chociczy (Falkstaedt) about 12 kilometers away. The village of Mchy was the homestead of the Mchowski family which no longer exists. After the Mchowski family the village belonged in turn to the Sepienski, Mieszkowski, and Radolinski families, and through the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century to the Bienkowski family. It now belongs to Ludwig Karsnicki. The parish church was established by Mchowski, and it already existed at the beginning of the 16th century. The first one was made of wood, and in the second half of the 17th century it was covered over with bricks. The steeple was made of copper. Previously it belonged to the deanery of Nowomiejski. Mchy the parish in the Borecki deanery has 1,766 souls (in 1873).

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, p. 221]

 

This translation by Malgorzata Biela is used by permission.


Męciszów

Męciszów, part of the village of Pustków, in Ropczyce powiat, Przeclaw parish, post office in Dabie, 1 km. to the north. Męciszów lies on a plain 187 meters above sea level, on the right bank of the Wisloka,* on the highway from Debica to Rzochów. The village is built partly by the highway, partly along a road leading east to Wola Ocieska, and has 498 Roman Catholic inhabitants, of whom 22 live on the grounds of the major estate, which has buildings on a small pond, 0.7 km. north of the center of the settlement. To the southwest the terrain rises somewhat, forming small hillocks 189 m. above sea level called Ogrody [gardens], and on its northeast side, the place where the surveyor's triangle was set, there is a small rise of 193 meters absolute elevation. Its astronomical position is 39°9' east longitude from Ferro [about 21°30' by today's standard coordinates], 50°9'30" north latitude. The soil is silt-covered, with a permeable sandy base. Meadows are plentiful but the pastureland along the riverbank is wet. The major estate, owned by Count K. Bobrowski, covers an area of 303 mórgs of farmland, 41 of meadows, 130 of pastures. To the south Męciszów borders on Pustków, to the east on Krownice and Wola Ocieska. - Mac. 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1885, vol. 6, pp. 274]

 

This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Winter 1999 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".

Michałów

Michałów. 8) a village in the powiat of Gostyń, the gmina of Czermno, was part of the estate of Czermno (see Czermno).

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, pp. 780-782]

This translation is used by permission.

Mieczewo

Mieczewo, a village in the Śrem powiat, 38 houses, 455 people, all catholic, 281 illiterate. The manor had 228 acres (morgs). The post office and a telephone were in Kornik. The train station was in Gadki about 17 kilometers away.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1885, vol. 6, p. 327]

This translation, by Joseph F. Martin, is used by permission.

Mielenica

Kalisz gubernia:

Mielnica 1.) folwark, Wieluń powiat, in the gmina and parish of Siemkowice, it is 22 viorsts from Wieluń, 1 house, 6 people. 2.) Mielnica - Mała (smaller Mielnica), village and Mielinica - Duża (greater Milenica), the villages are on lake Gopło in the Slupsk powiat and gmina of Skulsk. Slupsk is 42 ½ viorsts away; M.-Mała has 10 houses, 68 residents; M.-Duża has 15 houses, 100 residents; Mielnica settlement has 1 house and 15 residents.  In 1827, the folwark had 27 houses and 205 residents. M.-Duża belonged to the Lisewo estate. 3.) M. -Pudlowska, a settlement on the Ner river, Sieradz powiat in the gmina and parish of Wierzchy, Sieradz is 41 viorsts away; 1 house and 14 residents.
Br[onislaw] Ch[lebowski]

Wołyń gubernia:

Mielnica 1.) a town in Kowel powiat in the 6th Police district, gmina of Wielick. The town is 10 viorsts from Hołub and 8 from Wielick.  In 1870, there were 420 residents, 32 Jews, 162 houses, an Orthodox church, a Roman Catholic church, a chapel, a prayer house, brewery, brick yard, 2 mills, 17 shops, 20 craftsmen, 2 fairs.  [The Catholic church is renowned for a painting by Bogarodzic, painted on metal according to , dust ... Jan III sent under Wieden.]  There is a beautiful painting of Saint Francis painted by Szymon Czechowicz. The Roman Catholic church is in the deanery of Kowel. The settlement is one of the oldest in Wolyn (Volhynia), in the 14th century it was a very important city. Refer to the book Stecki in Klosach, vol. XIV, 269. 2.) M., a settlement in the Wileń powiat

Galicia:

Mielnica, city in Borszczów powiat...

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1885, vol. 6, pp.344-345]

This translation, by Donald Szumowski, is used by permission.

Mieszki villages

Mieszki Alte:  A village, located in the district of Ciechanow, Nuzewo township, parish of Ciechanow, 5.3 km from the City of Ciechanow.  It has 5 houses, 46 inhabitants, 229 acres of cultivated land, and 18 acres of poor soil.  Minor nobles live here. 

Mieszki Bardony:  A village and manor, located in the district of Ciechanow, Opinogora township, parish of Ciechanow, 7.5 km from the City of Ciechanow.  It has 6 houses, 85 inhabitants, 190 acres of good land, and 7 acres of poor land. 

Mieszki Ruszki:  A village, located in the district of Ciechanow, Nuzewo township, parish of Ciechanow, 5.3 km from the City of Ciechanow.  It has 12 houses, 100 inhabitants, and 256 acres of cultivated land.  In the year 1827, there were 9 houses and 59 inhabitants.  Minor nobles live here. 

Mieszki Wielkie:  A village, located in the district of Ciechanow, Sonsk township, parish of Ciechanow, 7.5 km from the City of Ciechanow.  It has 24 houses, 142 inhabitants, and 667 acres.  In the year 1827, there were 24 houses and 145 inhabitants.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1885, vol. 6, pp. 361-362]

This translation, by Steve Kamm and Krzysztof Nowakowski, is used by permission.

Mikołajów

4.) M., (or Nikołajew)-- it is both the Nikolaev government office and a town on the Nieman River, in the 3rd police district of Oszmiana province. It is part of the Logomowicze gmina, the Nikolaev rural district. It lies on the military-communications line from Oszmiana to the border of Nowogrodek province, 74.3 mi. from Wilno, 48.4 mi. to Oszmiana, and 32.5 mi. to Dziewieniszki. It contains 42 homes with 283 inhabitants, and an Orthodox parish church founded by Nicholas Kiszka around 1640. There is a ferry across the Nieman River at Nikolaev, and it is one of the chief river ports on this river within Wilno gubernia. Nikolaev originally belonged to the Kiskow family, and then to the Sapiehas. It was sold in 1751 to Ignace Oginski , and at present is the property of the Honorable Alfred Zamoyski. The Nikolaev rural district embraces the town of Nikolaev and the villages: Logiewka, Barow Misiukowicze, Wielki Barow, Maly Barow and the settlements: Pocielce Farm, and Miegisze with 542 land grant peasants.

Additional Slownik information on Mikołajów from Volume XV: 

Mikołajów - a small town in Oszmiana province. Formerly, owned by the Oscikow (Ostykow) family, from whom it was acquired in 1555 by the Knight Lukasz Boleslawowicz Swirski, the Sheriff of Krewo and subsequently Bailiff of Berezany. His widow bequeathed Nikolaev to the daughter of Stanislaw Fursa, Marshal of Oszmiana. Later Nicholas Christof Radziwill acquired Nikolaev from Kristof Swirski; in 1597 he bequeathed it to his son Jan George Radziwill. From the Radziwills, ownership was passed on to the Kiszka family. Nicholas Kiszka built an Orthodox church in the newly developed town in 1629.

Editor's Note: All Slownik longitudes in this article have been converted to modern coordinates which is based on the Greenwich zero meridian. All Polish measurement units (land areas, distances, height above sea level, etc.) were converted to American-English equivalents.  Monetary units, where identified, were left in zlotys/zl. or rubles/rs.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1885, vol. 6, pp. 401-402; 1902, vol. 15-2, p.332]

This translation, by Mike Gansecki, is used by permission.

Mirock

Mirock (Mirockie, Mirocka) is a small village on the banks of the river Mirka or Mircza in the Kiev district, which lies west of the town of Hostomla in the Polesie region. It has 417 inhabitants, is surrounded by forests and is totally secluded. Many centuries ago Mirock and the neighbouring village of Miknlicze comprised one estate. As far back as the XV century it belonged to the Polowcy family, descendents of Skwira Rozynowski. They were the supposed descendents of Tuhorkan, a Polwiecki prince. Olelko Wlodymirowicz, a Kiev prince, gave Michal from Skwira Polocow, the lands as a gift. They included lands on the rivers Teterow, Zdwiz and Irpien plus the village of Mikulicze. This gift was in return for “serving well and not sparing either health or wealth.” At this point, there is no mention of Mirock but we know that the village had been inhabited much earlier and after the Tartars destroyed it, it was turned into a holy place. Michal Polowiec Rozynowski had one son, Jacek, and one daughter, Oksana. The son inherited the lands and died in 1536. His two sons, Temion and Demian, (was in Orda captivity), had no children. Jozef Niemyrycz, son of Iwan, was the nearest in line to the fortune left by the Rozynowski family. King Zygmunt August confirmed this. However, he and his successors remained such only on paper. None of them ever actually ran the estates as they were destroyed on a number of occasions by the Ord armies. Rightly or wrongly, some possessions were turned into farms and others ended up (probably donations) in the hands of the Kiev Greek Orthodox churches and monasteries. This is substantiated by the following occurrence. Stefan Niemyrycz, son of Jozef, is seen requesting Radomysl of the archimandrite Pletelnicki as late as 1616 but to no avail. Miknlicze and Mirock experienced the same fate. The estates became the possession of the Kirylow monastery in Kiev. In 1605, Prince Konstanty Ostrogski named Wasyl Krasowski head of the monastery and it was he who rebuilt the Greek Orthodox Church of St. Kiryl in Kiev with “his own hands and monies.” It had stood empty since its destruction by the Tartars. He was a remarkable man. We see him constantly busy, improving, working and planning. The monastery`s villages were empty and so Krasowski begins settling them. In 1611, he creates the following document. “I, Wasili Krasowski, Head of the Greek Orthodox Monastery St. Kiryl of Kiev, along with all the brothers in Christ in this monastery, proclaim by way of this letter that we intend turning all the barren lands belonging to the Church into profitable ones and annexing them to the Church - this land named Miroszczyzna, 4 miles from Kiev and on the banks of the river Mirka. Furthermore, by way of this letter we wish to inform of our intentions of allowing people to settle, erect a mill and bring good to our friend Iwan Putiat. He is to feel free to settle people on these lands, make use of the land and enjoy and exploit the oak forests. Let him judge, rule and support. And if any of Iwan Putiat`s subordinates is to cause him trouble regarding his lands or those of the monastery we will be held responsible and cover any costs incurred. And as far as the cornfields and the natural resources of these fields is concerned, they all belong to Iwan Putiat. He can tenant them out or execute taxes. In return he will give us, God’s house, 4x60 Lithuanian groszy annually. This letter also informs of our intention to allow Iwan Putiat to build his manor on this our land. To this end he may use all the land and people he needs. If at some point in time the Head of the Greek Orthodox Church and its brethren, present or future, ever wanted the return of these lands they and the manor will be honestly evaluated and we will pay him whatever they are truly worth and the mill and buildings will come into the possession of the monastery. In this letter we also emphasise the fact that Iwan Putiat may not spend more than 50 Polish zlotys on the erection of the manor and mill. As verification of all the above we present Iwan Putiat with this letter signed by me, Head of the Eastern monastery, and by those brothers capable of doing so. Written in the St. Kiryl Monastery in Kiev this year 1611 in the month of May…..Wasili Krasowski, archimandrite, Head of the St. Kiryl and Jordan Monastery in Kiev, in his own hand. Swiaszczenno, in his own hand. Jewfimi, Cyrillic Deacon, in his own hand. And so a new settlement arose on the grounds of this former sacred spot. M. Krasowski died in 1616 and was succeeded by Cyprian and Sofroni Zerebillow Lobunski, Innocenty Giziel and Lazarz Baranowicz. However, after the Andrnsowski treaty of 1667, Mikulicze and Mirock became part of the Polesie estate belonging to the uniate metropolites. In 1699, Hulewicz, a soldier, wormed his way into King August II entourage and claimed Mirock and Unin. The metropolites, however, managed to release the lands from the usurper. From that time onwards, they ran the estates themselves or had bailiffs or placed tenants on them. During metropolite Kiszka`s time in office, Unin was run by Tolokon and Mirock by Jan Stecki. Upon the death of the last metropolite, Teodozy Rostocki, in 1805 in Petersburg the estates were taken over by the state and Mirock, Mikulicze, Pilipowicze, Babince and Proskoten were given to Karol von der Osten Sacken as a gift. Today they are in the possession of the above`s grandson. The owner resides in Mirock. Not far away from Mirock and Mikulicze there are the remains of the castle by the river Mircza or Kijanka, which flows into the river Rekacz. There are many, many graves in the forests around here. Presently, Mikulicze, Pilipowicze, and Huta belong to Mirock. They cover an area of 13,540 “dziesiecin” most of which is forestland. The greater Mirock includes the villages Babince, Felicyanowka, Hawrylowka, Lubianka, Mikulicze, Pilipowicze, Szybenne and Szybenska Rudnia.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1885, vol. 6, p. 494-495]

This translation, by Jola Jurasinska, is used by permission.

Mogilno

Mogilno (Piotrków gubernia)

1) A colony and woodland settlement in the Łaski district, in the Wymysłów commune and in the Dobroń parish. It is located to the left of the beaten track from Pabianice to Łasek. It has 58 houses, 512 dwellings, 1247 morgs (507 arable) and the woodland settlement has 15 morgs. In 1827 it had 35 houses and 249 dwellings. 2) A colony in the Sieradz district, in the Dzierzazna commune, in the Wielka Rossoszyca parish and 16 viorst from Sieradz. It has 61 houses and 218 dwellings. Br[onislaw] Ch[lebowski]

Mogilno, alternate Mohylna (Minsk gubernia)

A village on an unnamed stream in the Pinsk district, belongs to the 3rd Płotnick police precinct and the Płotnica commune. It lies on the road from the village Dubienca to the out-of-the-way village Jastrebla and on to Hajdamaszka (has an inn) on the Prypec river where raftsmen gather. It has 7 settlements and 27 dwellings. Isolated and in the remote Polesie. Pre-historic grave mounds are to be found here. It all belongs to the Kieniewicz family. A[leksander] Jel[ski]

Mogilno, alternate Mohilno (Vitebsk gubernia)

Property on the Niewiedranka River and Lake Mogilno, in the Siebież district, 43 viorst from Siebiez, in the 2nd police precinct, in the 4th court district (Newel). Today’s owner is Franciszek Mohla but was formerly owned by the Oginski family. The manor plus the farms Loin, Szewin and Nowolganowo cover 2515 dziesiecin(tithe). Under the administration of the Mogilno commune, from 1649, situated in the village Hrebło. M[ichał] K[uściński]

Mogilno or Mohilno (Wolyn gubernia)

A village in the Owrucz district, lies on the left bank of the Uz river into which flows the stream from Dawydki village, on the road from Zytomierz to Owrucz and 8 wiorst from Iskorosc. In the village, there is a lake which becomes the river Uz on the boundary with Zytomierz district. The soil is made up of grey and red granite, the former also to be found in the Zytomierz district, below the town Uszomierz. A post office existed here in the past but is no longer. A. L. Br.

Mogilno (Galicia, Austria-Hungary)

a village in the Grzybow district. It is located on a remote mountain, 450 m above sea level. It was probably severed from the Rosochatki range by waters. Mogilno is 13.1 kilometres from Grybow, lies in a hilly, wooded area and is inaccessible due to a lack of roads. It has a Roman Catholic parish and oil wells. The mountain’s geological formation is described by Kosmos (in 1882 on pages 369 to 371). At the bottom of the eastern slopes, down which flows the Lubinka, there are inoceramus layers covered with red loam. The visible rocks suggest these are mountain-inoceramus underlays made up of slabs of gray mica sandstone and dark chips. Poorly developed red loam provides a scant cover. At the very top there are menilite strands. Two oils wells are located here. The south Eocene slope is very picturesque. Parallel to the road leading to Nowy Sacz, stone and Eocene chunks appear. These are bluish when freshly split and a yellowy-brown manganese when weathered. The layers at the summit seem to be younger than Eocene although in the open quarry nearby there is coarse-grained sandstone, abundant in yellow lime, containing shell particles. On the northern slope towards Swiegocinow there are again layers of menilite i.e. chocolate or dark shells with the fish remains. Walter and Dr. Dunikowski maintain that the oil mining industry in this place has no future but the wells are constantly being deepened. The land is infertile as is always the case where there is oil. The large area of forest covering the Czarna mountain (715m) stretch south of Mogilno. The village has 526 RC inhabitants, of whom 38 live on the greater property belonging to Feliks Glebocki and Stanislaw Wyszkowski. It has 395 morgs arable land, 20 meadows and garden, 59 pasture and 204 woodland. The smaller property has 393 morgs arable land, 46 meadow and garden, 59 pasture and 9 woodland. The wooden parish church of unknown date was already in existence in the XV century according to Długosz (Lib. Benef. II, 304) and at that time it included the parish villages of Koniuszowa, Tyluszowa, Smylno, Komorowice, Dluga Laka and Podegrodzie. The name St. Martin remains till this day but the parish is now made up of Koniuszowa and Posadowa. It belongs to the Tarnow diocese and the Bobow decanate. The number of parishioners is almost 1300 and 11 Jews. Mogilno already existed at the beginning of the XIII century as mentioned in Gryfin’s charter of 1229, which donated 100 Franconia corn-fields to Jan Bogusz (Bozy) from Kamienica i.e. Nowy Sacz. He built a monastery in his native town (Morawski, Sadecz. I, 189). In the XV century, Mogilno belonged to the Pieniazek family and in the mid XVI century, the joint heir, Adam Rozen, who was taking care of Piotr Brusnik’s (his deceased brother) children, did not pay his brother’s church the required tithes and was excommunicated (Morawski, Sadecz. II, 406) In 1552, Jakob Rozen was the parish priest, probably a laymen, because another vicar is mentioned, Jakob Kiwek. In the north, Mogilno borders with Trzycierz and Swiegocin, to the east with Posadowa, to the west with Koniuszowa and to the south, by woods, with Mszalnica. [Dr] [Maurycy] Mac[iszewski]

Mogilno (Wielkopolska, Great Poland)

a district town belonging to the Bydgoszcz department. It is located 52º 4’ latitude north, and 35º 37’ longitude west of Ferro, on a group of hills, by the lake and stream, Zabienka, which falls into the Mala Notec. It is 80km from Poznan and 30 km. from Gniezno. To the east it is surrounded by peat fields and to the south and west there is a large, deep lake. In 1871, there were 138 dwellings, 2023 inhabitants, 618 Protestants, 1218 Catholics and 187 Jews. In 1875, there were around 2100 inhabitants and in 1881 2464 of whom 727 were Protestants, 1523 Catholics and 199 Jewish. The majority, more than 1400, are Poles. Most people work on the land or in business. Mogilno is the home of the Landrat, the district commissioner, the cadastral department, customs, the district tax collector, construction department, physicist, surgeon and veterinary surgeon. The district court comes under the Gniezno court. The Catholic parish church belongs to the Znin decanate. The parish consists of 3811 parishioners. The Protestant church belongs to the Inowroclaw diocese. A synagogue, a rector’s school and a multi-class elementary school are also in place. In 1871, there were 495 illiterates. There is also a flour factory, oil refinery, a bank with several hundred members, a farming association with 54 members, a 3rd. class post office, telegraph office, a postillion, taking people to Strzelno and post to Dabrowo, Wylasow and Gebic, a railstation, Poznan-Bydgoszcz and a second telegraph office at the rail station. There is a road going through Dabrowo to Barcin and from the station to Gebic and Kwieciszew. Mogilno belongs to the ancient type of settlements, even prehistoric, in the Wielkopolska (great Poland) region. Its location on hills reigning over peat land reinforces this belief. There must have been a fair sized settlement in the XI century when 3 churches were built almost simultaneously. Around 1060, King Boleslaw Smialy builds a Benedictine monastery with the St. John the Evangelist Church and brings monks from Tyniec. True, the foundation privilege, announced in the Wielkopolski Statute shows certain contradictions, which Helzel placed around 1155, but the content appears to be credible. According to the details, also upheld by the consistorial papers, the St. Jakob Church already existed in the XII century. The idea came from Klemens and comes Zbilut and Knight Dobrogosta built it across from the monastery, on the other side of the lake. Both churches were wooden. The monastery one, however, was made of chipped field boulders, in the Romanesque style (Wladyslaw Luszczkiewicz’s “Granite Churches in Kruszwica, Koscielec and Mogilno,” pages 58 and 59). During the civil war with the Wielkopolski Prince in 1230, Wladyslaw Odonicz plundered the church in Mogilno. In 1398, Wladyslaw Jagiello bestowed city and German rights upon it. It also became markets, fairs and the citizens were released from the jurisdiction of the starosts and castellans. With Pope Martin V’s permission, the archbishop of Gniezno, Mikolaj Traba, annexed the parish church to the monastery in 1419 and had the monks take over the parish priest duties. Andrzej, the Trzemeszen abbot, carried out the incorporation acts in 1420. It most likely had to do with increasing the monastery funds from the parish sources. In the XVI century, the abbots built a brick church in place of the wooden one. It had a pointed arch and no tower, as previously. The consecration ceremony took place in 1592. Also the old monastery church underwent many changes, which obliterated the original Romanesque features. The last changes were made in the XVII century. In 1867, the monastery church, once again, became the parish church and the parish church became a supporting one. The town itself did not play a significant role in history and did not develop. At the beginning of this century it was a wretched little town. In 1811, it had 67 houses, and 583 dwellings. In 1831, 104 houses and 1110 dwellings (336 Protestants, 63 Jews). By 1837, the population had risen to 1363.

Mogilno powiat (district) takes up part of the south-east Bydgoszcz department between 52º 28’ and 52º 51’ latitude north and 35º 15’ and 35º 50’ longitude, west of Ferro. To the north it borders with the districts Wagrowiec, Szubin and Inowroclaw, to the east also with the Inowroclaw district, to the south with the Konin district in the Kalisz gubernia and the Gniezno district and finally to the east with the districts Gniezno and Wagrowiec. The longest part of the district from north to south and through Mogilno is 40 km and from east to west, also through Mogilno is only 32 km. The district covers an area of 16.97 sq. miles or 934 sq. km. It is mainly flat land, with a few hills around Czewajewo area and the towns Trzemeszno, Kwieciszew and Wylatowo and near the villages of Placzkowo, Szydlowo and Trzemzal. The land is fairly fertile. Most of the area is arable land, around 70%, meadows 6.8%, pastureland 4.6% and woodland 10.8%. As to live-stock, the district has more sheep than the average for Prussia but the number of horses does not exceed the average and cattle even less so. The most important rivers are 1. The Notec which, after leaving the Inowroclaw district, flows for two miles to almost Pakosci, where it forms the boundary between the districts of Mogilno and Inowroclaw. 2. The Welna flows along the district’s western boundary and separates it from the Gniezno district. It flows out from a number of small lakes to the east of Gniezno. At Jezierzano, it reaches the district border and then flows through the Rogowskie Lakes, northwards. 3. The Mala Notec, a left tributary of the Notec, has its spring between Powidz and Witkow, to the east of Skorzecin in Lake Skorzecin. It then flows north to Lake Lososnicki and then to Lake Trlag which, lies on the district’s eastern boundary. Here, it joins the Notec near the village of Koluda. Near Pakosc, the Notec emerges from the lake and, a little further on, leaves the district behind. 4. The Zabienka flows through the Mogilno and Domanin Lakes and near Kwieciszew it enters the Mala Notec. There are over 100 lakes and ponds in the district. The larger ones are: near Izdebno, Rogowo, Ziolo, Lubiecz, Kruchowo, Wieniec, Wiecianowo, Trzemeszno, Ostrowito, Mogilno, Szydlowo, Lososniki, Orchowo, Gora, and Trlag. In 1881, the district had 48346 inhabitants (11161 Protestants, 35921 Catholics, and 1149 Jews). There are around 35000 Poles and 52 people pro sq. km. The Mogilno district belongs to the less populated in the Poznan state. In 1875 there were 44725 people of whom 10995 lived in towns. In 1871, 46133 with 10580 in towns. There are 6 town communes: 1. Gebice, 2. Kwieciszewo, 3. Mogilno, 4. Pakosc, 5. Rogowo, 6. Trzemeszno. There are 158 country communes, 71 manorial communes, 355 localities and 3997 homes. In 1871, there were 22571 men and 23562 women, 11111 Protestants, 33765 Catholics and 1257 Jews. The main occupation is farming, wood handling, cattle rearing and trading in the towns. The district is divided into 5 areas or commissariats. The commissaries have their seat in: 1. Mogilni, 2. Pakosc. 3. Trzemeszno, 4. Gebice, 5. Rogow. Before the reorganisation and bringing of the court to Trzemeszno, there was a collective district court. Presently there are district courts in Trzemeszno and Mogilno, which belong to the proprietors’ court in Gniezno. The district is made up of 22 Catholic parishes: a) in the Rogowski decanate: 1. Rogowo, 2. Lubcz or Lubiecz, 3. Niestronno, 4. Paledzie, 5. Ryszewsko, 6. Izdebno: b) in the Znin decanate: 7. Gebice, 8. Kwieciszewo, 9. Mogilno, 10. Pakosc, 11. Wytasowo, 12. Parcin, 13. Strzelic, 14. Szczepanowo, 15. Trlag c) in the St Michal Gniezno decanate: 16. Dusznno, 17. Kamieniec, 18. Kruchowo, 19. Linowiec, 20. Orchowo, 21. Strzyzewo, 22. Trzemeszno.

In the first half of the century, there were also the following parishes: 1. Debowo, 2. Goscierzyn, 3. Ladki, 4. Szydlowo and affiliated churches: 1. the hospital one in Szydlowo, 2. St. Klemens in Mogilno. There are 6 Protestant parishes: a) in the Gniezno diocese: 1. Trzemeszno; b) Inowroclaw diocese: 2. Jozefowo by Mogilno, 3. Kwieciszewo, 4. Mogilno, 5. Pakosc, 6. Dabrowo. There are no secondary schools in the district. In Trzemeszno, all that remains of the philological high school, closed in 1864, is a 4-class school. In the smaller towns there are only elementary schools and a rectorial one, under the auspices of the district inspector, whose headquarters are in Trzemeszno. It is under the control of the Poznan school counsel. In 1871, there were 16530 illiterates.

The district consists of 365902 morgs of which the greater part is privately owned, namely 162267 including 32829 mrg. crown lands. Since 1848, 46749 mrg. have passed out of Polish hands and only 51415 still remain with them. There is a steam and water mill in Kawka. Other mills exist in Podgaj, Wylatow, Zielina, Goryszew Slowikow, Wiencu (Winitz), Trzemeszen and a sawmill and mill in Lesznik. Distilleries: in Dzierzazno, Kruchowo, Szydlowo, Skubarczew, Orchowo, Slaboszewo, Wszedzyn, Wola Czewujewska, Rogowko, Procyno and Wiewiorczyno. Breweries in: Trzemeszno, Pakosc and Wylatowo. Sugar mill near Pakosc in Przyjezierze or Jankow. Flour steam factory in Mogilno, potato flour factory in Kawa, oil mill in Mogilno. Post office 3rd class in Mogilno with a telegraph office, in Pakosc also with a telegraph office, in Rogow, postal agency offices in: Dabrowo, Gebice, Goscierzyn, Jankow, or Przyjezierze, Kwieciszewo, Orchowo, and Wylatowo. These are the district roads: 1. Poznan-Torun, previously royal now provincial, leads from Gniezno through Trzemeszno and Wylatowo to Kwieciszewo on to Strzelno, covering 29 km of the district; 2. from Wylatowo through Mogilno, Dabrowo and Szczepanowo to Barcin, covering 28 km of the district; 3. from Barcin through Pakosc to Inowroclaw, covering 6 km of the district; 4. from Mogilno station to Gebice, covering 8.4 km of the district; 5. from Trzemeszno station to Slowikow, covering 11.4 km of the district and 6. from Gasowo through Rogowo to Gniezno, covering 17.1 km of the district. The railroad Pozna-Torun-Bydgoszcs cuts through the district with stations at Mogilno and Trzemeszno. In the north of the district there is a second class railroad from Pakosc to Przyjezierza or Jankow. The main water thoroughfare is the Notec. The larger part of Mogilno district used to belong to Gniezno province along with all the towns, covering an area of 15 sq. km. The smaller part, to the south of Trzemeszno and Gebice, belonged to the Brzesc-Kujawy province and a very small part near Pakosc, along with the villages, Rybitwy and Widowies on the right bank of the Notec, used to belong to the Inowroclaw province. The population in 1831 was 26655 or 1483 people per sq. mile with 5679 in the city and 20976 in the country. Catholics 19074, Protestants 6729, Jews 852. Town homes 685, village homes 2629, in all 3314. In 1837, the population was 30823 i.e. 1715 per sq. mile. Town dwellers 6407 and land dwellers 24416. During archeological studies carried out in the Trzemeszno district, medieval castle ruins with pagan cemeteries, Kruchowo and Orchowo, were discovered. Urns and other interesting medieval items were excavated. M. St[udniarski] i Br[ronisław] Ch[lebowski]

Mogilno, wypudowanie, pow. niborski, st. p. Nibork.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1885, vol. 6, p. 582-585]

This translation, by Jola Jurasinska, is used by permission.

Molnica

River Molnica - Kraski left-bank tributary, which flows near the village of Żyrowa. It begins around Wilczogóry (Belsk Large Villages). In the Middle Ages the river was navigable from the mills. Now belongs to IV rivers row, near the village of Żyrowa connects to the river Kraska.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1885, vol. 6, p. 641]

This translation, by Jola Jurasinska, is used by permission.

Mołodeczno [now Maladzyechna, Belarus]

MOŁODECZNO- (from Eckhard's Dictionary: Mołodzieczno), a town and estate on the Usza River in the first police district of Wilia province, as well as a gmina and rural district. It lies on the postal road from Wilno to Minsk, and also within a mile of the Lipawa-to-Romny railroad line, 73 mi. from Wilno and 13 mi to the south of Wilejka. Miserably constructed, Mołodeczno has 1,332 inhabitants (629 men & 703 women), mostly Jewish. There are two Orthodox churches-- a wooden parish church called Birth of Our Lady Mary, transformed in 1865 from a Catholic church; and a second, once a Uniate church, called Sts. Cosmas & Damian with a burial cemetery. There are also Jewish prayer houses, a public school, a seminary for rural teachers, home of the first police administration district, a chamber court and a Commissar for Peasant Affairs (peace mediator). Further there is present in Mołodeczno a beautiful and extensive palace, formerly erected as a defensive castle by Prince Zbaraski. It was converted to a palace by later Oginski proprietors, who also erected a wooden Catholic parish church in Mołodeczno in 1758 and brought in Trinitarians in 1762. These were settled within a walled monastery by Thaddeus and Anne (nee Radziwill) Oginski, the Castellan of Troki. The monastics possessed a suitably large library. A 5th-class school with a competent secondary school existed in Mołodeczno until 1809, dedicated to learning [ed.-- in conjunction with Wilno University?]. Among those who were educated here-- Alexander Tyszynski, critic and professor of the chief Warsaw schools, and Anthony Muchlinski, orientalist, professor and Dean of the University of Petersburg, are the most famous. The school there was later changed into a seminary for rural teachers of the Orthodox faith.

Mołodeczno is first mentioned around the year 1389, when Dimitry Korybut, Prince of Severian Novgorod, produced a document here on December 16th, assuring his tributary fidelity to (King of Poland-Lithuania) Wladislaw Jagiello and Queen Jadwiga. On July 6, 1501, King Zygmunt granted the Mołodeczno estate and holdings to the Russian Prince [ed.-note: no translation for the term **kniahini**'; I use "knight" and some times "prince" e.g. Russ **knyazh**] Michael Iwanowiczow Mscislawski„ on the condition that the donatee provided a (river?) crossing (or passage) for Parliament members and hunters. King Zygmunt's grant confirmed the privileges on July 12, 1511. This Prince Michael Mscislawski died around 1525; leaving three daughters Nastasia, Theophila, and Agrippina.

[ed.-- the entire translation which follows could use expert review on the financial details and the other intricacies.] On May 4, 1558, Basil (Wasily) Rahoza exhibited a document, indicating the sale of Mołodeczno manor known as the "Bewitched Zelazkowszczyzna", which he received from Prince Zbaraski, Voivod of Vitebsk, who had received it as a gift from Knight Bogdan Mscislawski. On May 1, 1561, Andrew Michaelowicz Sanguszko Koszyrski, Sheriff of Luck, registered a fourth part of Mołodeczno to [ed.-- "kniahini" knight?] Bogdan Michaelow Mscislawski, who after obtaining a share for his sister, bought it from Basil Rahozy. In 1567, Mołodeczno passed in its entirety to the property of Knight Nastasi Stefanow Zbaraski, Voivod of Troki, who bequeathed it to his descendants.

In 1617, the whole of Mołodeczno became the possession of Lew Sapieha, Chancellor of Lithuania, who on August 20, 1631 sold it to Stanislaus Semiott, Chamberlain of Samogitia. Semiott registered the following farms of Mołodeczno in a testament: Rajewszczyzna, Mysota, Dyrmowiczami, as well as the Sieliszcze estate and Lewkowa farm for his sons and the son of Waclaw Semiott, leaving a life-annuity to his only brother, on the stipulation that if, in part, the estate were to be disposed of [ed.--komukolwiek?] or else had acquired heavy debts, in that case the wealth was to pass not to the descendants of those abandoning it but into the ownership of the Pac family. On April 23, 1626, Waclaw Semiott applied for the Pisarzewszczyzna and Dyrmowicze estates on behalf of his son Stanislaus. Despite the stipulation in the testament of Stanislaw Semiott, the husband Waclaw Janowicz and Katherine on January 16, 1628 sold Mołodeczno to Karpiow Semiott and various farmsteads to Alexander Gosiewski, Voivod of Smolensk for 87,825 zlotys, and after eviction from the Wierpianach and Gracizach estates, sold them for a military camp of a Samogitian prince. Consequently, plaintiffs of the grant filed a lawsuit in court. And so on November 18, 1652, they delivered a writ to Gosiewski's home with the suit of Nicholas, Casimir, Joan and Stanislaus Semiott and on behalf of (those) from Sluck and Przyjemsk and their spouses, as well as for Kotlem, at that time possessor of Mołodeczno. But this unjust acquisition of the estate was confirmed in perpetuity despite the testament of Waclaw Semiott.

On September 18, 1711, Bishop Bogusław Gosiewski sold Mołodeczno to the Ogiński family. In 1723, the Mołodeczno properties, Hanuty, Bienicy Lewkowa and Sieliszcza went to Michael Kociell, Treasurer of Lithuania. In 1736, Casimir Kociell, (Sheriff of Markow), proprietor of Mołodeczno and Hanuty, deposed a testament, from which it was produced that his daughter Rosalie was to acquire it (through marriage) to Casimir Oginski, Sheriff of Babinow.  On May 13, 1738, Casimir and Rosalie (nee Kociell) Oginski bequeathed Mołodeczno and certain farmsteads to Thaddeus Oginski, Clerk of Lithuania. On June 14, 1740, Pac, the Castellan of Polotsk, acquired half of Mołodeczno, surrendering the rest to Marcian Oginski, Voivod of Vitebsk. (King) August III gave Thaddeus Oginski, Castellan of Troki, full privileges on November 14, 1740,..... [ed.-- partial translation ends here].

Editor's Note: All Slownik longitudes in this article have been converted to modern coordinates which is based on the Greenwich zero meridian. All Polish measurement units (land areas, distances, height above sea level, etc.) were converted to American-English equivalents.  Monetary units, where identified, were left in zlotys/zl. or rubles/rs.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1885, vol. 6, p. 647]

This translation, by Mike Gansecki, is used by permission.

Moszczanica (Galicia)

2.) M., also called Moszczenica.  It is a village in the county of Gorlice.  It is a large settlement in the Moszczanka valley, flowing from under Krokowska Mountain, 409 meters above sea level in elevation, on the left bank of the Ropa River.  Through the village pass visitors from Gorlice (9 kilometers) on their way to Czezkowice.  From the northeast and the southwest the terrain rises in a slight hill covered with forest.  Among its population are 2957 Roman Catholic inhabitants.  In the village rise the walls of the church built in 1820.  On the south of it, along the road is a not to large chapel.  It is mostly the domain of Julian of Jazwinski Skrzynski.  It is divided into three manorial farms, of which one lies in the village itself.  The second is known as Krokowski and is on the extreme northeast.  The third is located in the middle; on the north of Moszczanica is the main one.  This farm is composed of 401 morgs of field, 119 morgs of meadow and gardens, 35 morgs of pasture, and 499 morgs of forest.  It is the smallest.  The others are made up of 2534 morgs of fields, 237 morgs of meadow, 371 morgs of pasture, and 259 morgs of forest.  At the end of the last Republic it was owned by the village head for the King and brought in 317 Polish zloty each quarter.  Here is located a public school with one class.  The Roman Catholic parish was already established by a collection of benefactors since 1326, but there are no documents on its erection.  It lays in the Diocese of Przemysl, and the Deanery of Biecz, and also embraces Mszanka for a total population of 4031 Roman Catholics and 120 Jews.  Moszczanica is bordered on the north with Turza and Sitnica, on the east by Kwiatonowica and Zagorzany, on the south by Poreba and on the west by Luzna with its hamlets.  At the beginning of the last century, it was separated into two parts, one in Malo Polska and the other under Germany.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1885, vol. 6, p.726]

This translation, by Jerry S. Kucharski, FIC, FICF, is used by permission.

Murczyn

(in documents Murczino), a village in Szubin county, 2 localities: a) Murczyn, the village, and b) Murczynek, the folwark, 47 houses, 479 residents, 28 Protestant, 451 Catholic, 178 illiterate. Post office, telegraph and inn in Źnin, railway station 34 km. away in Mogilno. Laski's Liber Beneficiorum (I. 150) and the Regestra pobor. 1577 r. [Pawinski, Wielk. I, 184] mention this village, which lies in Góra Arcybiskupia parish. M. St.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1885, vol. 6, p. 809]

This translation, by Jerry S. Kucharski, FIC, FICF, is used by permission.

  
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