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Słownik Geograficzny Translations

Jarosław: Galicia

Jarosław, a county town on the left bank of the river San and near the Archduke Karol Ludwik train station (between Pelkin and Radymno, 133 km from Lwów). It is situated in a very fertile plain at longitude 40º 21’ east from Ferro and latitude 50º 1’. It lies 208 m above sea level. Its population of 12,949 is made up of 4,320 Roman Catholics, 4,276 Greek Orthodox, 53 non-Catholics, and 4,300 Jews. It was once well known for its expansive trade but that was curtailed by a number of fires and invasions in the XVll and XVlll centuries. However it slowly regains its former splendor due to renewed trading and increased industry. Due to its most favorable location near the river and train station, the citizens of Jarosław float grain, meat, eggs and albumin down to Gdansk. Jarosław has a paraffin distillery and plant and a candle factory. There is also a tile factory, 2 plants producing ground bones, 1 producing spodumene and glue, 1 manufacturing “talis” i.e. white vestments worn by the Orthodox Jews during prayer, 3 brick factories and 1 wickerwork factory, established in 1879 and ran by the state. The main handicraft is shoemaking and tanning. According to the journal issued in 1881, there are 40 shoemakers with concessions with an additional 300 people working from home. If an outlet was available, the Jarosław shoemakers could produce 60,000 pairs of shoes annually. The trades and industries are backed by financial institutions such as the section of the association of credit for landowners, landowner’s credit union and the fund supporting Christian craftsmen and traders, set up in 1859 using 2100 zl of company funds. Markets are held twice a week and the 12 annual fairs last 3 days. The town is well established and covers an area of 4679 morgs and 418 square sazen (6ft). In the middle of the market place there is storied town hall, adorned with small towers. The administration offices are housed here. Beneath the 1 and 2 storied buildings surrounding the square market place are 1 and 2 storied cellars with vaulted ceilings. According to local lore, one of these buildings was used by Queen Jadwiga on her way to Przemyśl; in another, on the first floor, there is an expansive room, which was probably used by the tradesmen for their meetings during the famous fairs. In the southeast part of the square there is an empty space, which was transformed into a garden in 1877. Here stood the first parish church, which was destroyed after the sudden collapse of its tower in 1804. 4 roads radiate from the square: to the east - the Radym road, to the south – the Krakow road, to the north - the road to San and to the west there is a narrow, very neglected road, which is the mainstay of the Jews. To the north-west of the square, there is the parish church of St. John, formerly Society of Jesus, built in the Renaissance style. The church was built in 1571 and burned down in 1862 but was completely restored thanks to the efforts of the priest and the city’s generosity. The former Benedictine convent with sprawling gardens stands on a nearby hill. The convent later housed the military equipment committee and then turned into military equipment storage. Beneath the building there are extensive cellars and, according to local lore, a track leads to the Church of Our Lady, which is situated outside the town on the road to Lwów. This extremely pitiable church, with adjoining monastery, now houses the Dominican Fathers but was originally the second home, outside the town, of the Jesuits. Recently starost Beneszek has been avidly restoring it with the help of donations and a lottery. Near the town and on the road to Krakow, there is a small but very beautiful church with a monastery and boarding-school for seminarists. It belongs to the Reformati Fathers. Behind stands the old Holy Ghost Hospital church with a statue of Our Lady above the gate. It has been converted into a Protestant church. (the Augsburg Protestant parish has been in existence since 1797, has 360 parishioners and two branches: one in Przemyśl and one in Monasterz). To the north-east, close to the square, there is a small, neglected Greek Orthodox chapel with a presbytery in the courtyard. You can reach the Radymin road by descending the small embankments, the last remaining remnants of the former castle, at the foot of which stands an imposing 2 story building erected in 1875 and used as a school. On the same route but 2 km from town there is the convent of the Immaculate Conception built in 1876 and surrounded by a high wall. The convent has a school for the daughters of the richest families and has been furnished accordingly. Apparently an Armenian church also existed here from the XIII century. Jarosław is the seat of the starostwa and the various offices associated with it, county courthouse, county council, school council for Jarosław and Cieszanow and the post/ telegraph office. There is also a 5-class boys’ school, a 4-class girls’ school and a junior high school which converted from a non self-subsistent 2-class school into a 3-class one in 1869 and into a senior secondary in 1872. 256 pupils attend the school. Additionally there are 2 schools on the outskirts of Lezajsk: a 2-class one and a 1-class public one. Jarosław has 2 drugstores and 6 doctors.

 

Supposedly, Jarosław, who captured Przemyśl from Mieszko II in 1031 founded the town. It was first mentioned in the XI century in Pray’s “Hist Hung” in 1234. According to the book, the Hungarian King Andrzej set out to re-enthrone Koloman’s son on the Halych throne after his dethronement by the Ruthenians. During this episode he captured the Irosto stronghold. Previous to that Jarosław had experienced Przemyśl’s fate. The Hungarians could not have reigned here long because, once again, we read of Bela’s campaign. The Mongolian storming in 1241 devastated the stronghold completely but the wooden town must have recovered quickly because, in 1247, (Lewicki’s “Pictures of Przemyśl, page 75) a pitched battle between the Romanowiches, Poland and Hungary takes place near Jarosław. At that time, Jarosław was a stronghold, difficult to capture. From that time on there is no mention of Jarosław until 1375. It was in that year, in Lwów on 7 December, that Wladyslaw Opolski issues an important document, on the strength of which he moves the town from its present position to in front of his castle and proffers upon it the Magdeburg rights. Moreover, he gives the town an additional 100 Frankonian corn–fields and the hereditary wojt office he entrusts to some Peter or other and his nephew Maciej. In return they are to take part in every campaign with spear, crossbow and a fine suit of armor. That same year the prince also gave the Catholic Church, of which he was the likely founder, a corn-field. After Opolczyk retired in 1379, The Hungarian Ludwik gave Jarosław to some Hungarian starost, about whom nothing is known. For some time after Ludwik’s death in 1382, a small Hungarian force remained until it was ousted out. From that time on, Jarosław remained in Poland. It was here that Jadwiga stayed on her journey to take over red Ruthenia after her sister Maria’s death. The Przemyśl boyars also greeted her here and on 18 February 1387 she issued the famous Przemyśl land privilege. A few years later, in 1394 and 1398, we read in the consistorial acts of Peter, the first priest in Jarosław. During Kazimierz W’s reign, Jarosław belonged, for short periods of time, to the descendants of Oton from Pilcza. In 1417, Władysław Jagiełło gave them to his stepson Jan Granowski as a county. They were then passed on to Jas from Tarnów and his descendants took on the name Jarosławski. Now the town expanded due to the peace time conditions. In a decret issued in Buda, Wladyslaw III mentions the trade expansion, foreign merchants, gives the town the right to store and threatens to revoke the right to purchase if the merchants avoid the town. In 1470, Rafal Jarosławski, the Lwów starost, establishes the Jarosław ordination, which Kazimierz Jagielonczyk confirms. Later  in 1519 it was lifted by Zygmunt I. In 1479, Spytek Jarosławski, the Ruthenian voivode, gave the town a town-hall with all the pertinent income, at the same time assuring he would not demand the 20 grzywno (ancient monetary unit) on the former levy and would not enforce more than 5 days work on the land. He also recommends the councilors keep an eye on the weights and measures and obligates the people to always have ready a coachman and a 4-horse cart with food supplies in case of war. 20 years later in 1497, the Bukowina disaster struck and brought on the Tartar attacks. In 1498, the Wallachian’s and Turks attacked Jarosław and in 1502 the Tartars so destroying the town completely. In 1513, Spytek Jarosławski, the Krakow castellan, fortifies the town and uses the 10 grzywien from the mills for its upkeep. He instructs the councilors to set aside the same amount for an expert surveyor and, in return, he relieves the townspeople from having to bring salt from the Przemysl salt mines. In 1523, Jadwiga from Wawrzyszna, the wife of Spytek Jarosławski from Sprowa, coat-of-arms Odrowaz, increased the priest’s salary and opened a collegiate church next to the church. It remained until the Austrians removed it. Her grand-daughter, Zofia, widow of Krzysztof Tarnowski, the Wojnice castellan, married Jan Kostka, the Gdansk castellan in 1569 and had the church resplendently rebuilt. In 1571, she had the church of St. Jan with college built (today the parish church). She also issued her people a brevet in which she asks them to bring two cartloads of wood to Jarosław: one for fences, one for the brickworks and so help support the upkeep of the stronghold. Moreover, she allows only 2 Jewish families to settle in the town and gives her people “the right to enforce expulsion if more than 2 families settle…” In 1572, Zygmunt August’s police officers found the roads covered with brushwood and the dykes and bridges in good condition. At that time, the town was prospering and trading was excellent. Fairs took place on Ash Wednesday, Ascension and St. Andrew’s Day and lasted 4 weeks. There were Tartar, Turkish and Persian merchants and others came from Moscow, Venice, Germany and Hungary. (Cellarius Descrip. Pol. 325. Balinski Star.Pol.II, 655)Piasecki (Chron. sui temp) talks of 20000 horses and 40000 cattle being rounded up and these fairs were the largest after the Frankfurt ones. German merchants bought raisins and nuts here. Anna Kostczanka, wife of Prince Aleks Ostrogski, the Wolyn voivode lived here permanently and decided to bring in judges who would ensure the visiting merchants be treated justly. On May 8 1600, a dreadful fire broke out in Jarosław. A part of town and the parish church succumbed to the flames. Anna Ostrogska releases her people from rent and levies for 4 years. She provides them with firewood, arranges relief through the King and has the church rebuilt. 21 years later, the printer, Jan Szeliga is publishing books here but new disasters arrive. Merchants from the east bring the plague in 1622, the Tartars plunder the town in 1624 and a terrible fire, begun on St’ Bartholomew’s night in 1625 destroys the entire town and the stored wares. 4 fires broke out simultaneously and the wooden town, together with wares amounting to 10 million zloty, burned. 300 people lost their lives in the fire, too. Once again, Anna Ostrogoska releases her people from rent and levies for 3 years and helps in the rebuilding of the town. The records for 1629 list a variety of craftsmen and once again the famous fairs take place. Even Wladyslaw IV visits the fair in 1646 and his hosts are princess Ostrogoska’s heiresses who split the estate and castle in three. At this time, the town was no longer a stronghold (wrongly maintained by Balinski II, 657) mid March 1656, the town was occupied by the Swedish King J. Karl Gustav. Stefan Czarnecki attacked the Swedish army from his camp in Krakowiec, defeated it and forced it back to the bridge at Jarosław. After joining forces with Lubomirski, he forced Karol Gustav to leave the town (por. Walewski hist. wyzwol. Rzpltej I, 199 according to S. Czarnecki’s letter to the Queen dated 18 March 1656).The following year, 1657, Rakoczy plundered the town and the pest ravaged it. After Jan Zamojski, son of Katarzyna, wife of Tomasz Zamojski crown chancellor and daughter of Anna Ostrogska, two thirds of the estate were passed on to the widow, Maria Kazimiera de la Grange d’Arquien. On marrying Jan III, she gave her estate to Elzbieta Sieniawska nee Lubomirska, Anna Ostrogska’s granddaughter and the wife of Adam, Krakow castellan. During the war between August II and Karol XII, Jarosław was occupied, on a number of occasions, which ruined its trading. In 1711, the magnificent baptism of the 13 year old Zofia Sieniawska took place here. The god parents were August II, Piotr W. and Prince Rakczy. From that time onwards, Jarosław went into decline and the Jewish population was on the increase. In 1738 there were 100 Jewish families living in Jarosław. The last Sieniawska passed the Jarosław estates first to Stan. Denhoff, after his death to Prince August Czartoryski and after the death of their daughter Princess Izabella Lubomirska, the enormous estates (16 towns and 53 villages) fell apart and into many sections. On 8 August 1755, the Przemysl bishop, Waclaw Sierakowski crowned the miraculous picture of Our Lady in the church of the Jesuits. At that time, the Jesuits owned 2 colleges and well-known schools in Jarosław. Moreover, there were the monasteries belonging to the Reformists, Benedictines, Bernardines and Dominicans and a few Greek Orthodox churches. In 1780, Jarosław was the second most imposing town after Lwow, in Galicia. The town was completely brick-built, with many 2 and 3 storeyed buildings around the market place and surrounding streets, candle factories and others. Around 1800 the town had a population of 11000. (Nowy Dykcyonarz geogr. Wroclaw 1813) and before 1842 only 8000 (Berghaus Grundriss d. Geogr. 1842)

 

In 1862 it had a population of only 8800.  Deprived of high schools and lagging behind developmentally in comparison to many other towns, it is only now beginning to expand. The town coat-of-arms depicts an open gate above which appear two towers beneath a crown. In many documents, Jarosław is also called Jarosławiec e.g. in a document dated 1425 where the properties of Zurawiec and Przemysl are divided. The land and castle acts vol. 7, page 70. In the XVI century “dubasy” or “dziubas”y were built. These were boats for transporting grain. Barges and a type of paddle boat built here were floated down the river San to the Vistula. As early as 1570, the taxes on these boats had been established and in 1650 an association was set up, the New Confraternity whose aim was to build scows, barges and paddle boats, fill them with grain and float them down to the Vistula. They made more than 6000 red zlotych profit. In 1616, Jan Szeliga set up a printing plant. In the XVI century there was a brewery; in the XVII there were weaving plants, a tannery and watches, swords, knives, hats and nets were being manufactured. By 1629 there were 20 guilds. In the XVIII century there was a candle factory called Jarosław candles and a boiler-maker’s guild. Towards the end of the XVIII century, Mr. Bielogradzki was producing arms and also at this time Austrian uniforms were being manufactured.  At the beginning of the XIX century, between 400 and 500 centnar wax was being bleached to make candles in factories owned by Stawik and Wapinski. Schwarzman’s same factory was not far behind. It was also during this period that tiles were produced and a cloth factory and the famous tannery were opened.

1844, illustrated description of the town in Przyj. Ludu, page 330 and in 1846 on page 113 and St. Mary’s Church on pages 202 and 203.

 

1831- description of the town in “Miscellaneous Lwow”, page 30 and in 1834 page 167.

 

1826 - Lwow, Siarczynski’s “Jarosław - Information and Statistics “

 

1868 - Ploszczanski’s description of the town in “Naukowym Sbornyku Matycy” page 177.

 

Others include St. Mary’s Church in Jarosław “Klosy” vol. 18, page 188.

 

1840 – The Lwow, about the print-plant in Jarosław page 16.

 

1864 - Piatowski’s The Blessed Lady in the Dominican convent in Jarosław.

 

1835 - the erection of the Jarosław collegiate (much abridged) ”Friend of the Christian Truth” pamphlet 1, page 107, pamphlet 2, page 109.

 

1880 - “Time” nr 66 The Restoration of St. Mary’s Church.  

 

-Church stone relief by  The Commission for the Conservation of Historical Buildings, New Edition, Vienna vol. 3, page 15 and vol. 4 page 16.

 

1804 - On wax bleaching in Jarosław in Rohrer’s “Notes taken on a Journey through Galicia.”  page 202  

 

1874 – Lwow newspaper nr. 246 “On the river San”

 

Steczynski’s short description and illustration “the Galicia Area”

 

Rastawiecki mentions Stachowicz’s paintings in the local churches in the “Painters’ Dictionary” vol. 2, page 211.

 

1854 – supplement to the Lwow Newspaper nr. 47 and 48 charter of 1440

 

Hand-written documents referring to the Benedictine convent in Jarosław in the Bibl. Ossol nr. 101.

 

Catalogus tertius collegiorum provinciae Polonae S.J. (also includes Jarosław) nr. 98.

 

In the Lwow University library, a number of hand-written documents, mostly referring to the Jesuit collegiate  in Jarosław, can be found  numbered 5, 6, 15, 22, 33, 34 and 57.

 

The Jarosław County in Galicia has 1 large town, 3 smaller ones, 97 parishes, 38 areas governed by manors, altogether 139 administrative sectors. It covers an area of 22.6528 square Austrian miles, has a population of 90811.

 

1 large town – Jarosław: 3 smaller towns – Pruchnik, Radymno and Sieniawa. The magistrate court for the county courts in Jarosław, Radymno and Sieniawa is in Jarosław.

Jarosław: Russia

Jarosław, is the capital of the Jarosław province. Is situated at the estuary of the river Kotorosta into the Volga at 57º 37’ latitude north and 57º 34’ longitude east, 655,75 wiorst from Petersburg and 261 from Moscow. Its population of 24,311 is made up of 312 Catholics, 177 Protestants and 451 Jews. There are 66 orthodox churches, 2 monasteries, 86 factories and plants, the most important of which are silk production, bell foundry and 3 plants using raw materials and iron. The cotton factory is worthy of note due to its fittings and age. It was built 130 years ago, has a hospital, school and Orthodox Church. Many factors influence the expansion of trade and industry namely it lies on the main waterway connecting the Baltic and Caspian Seas, the central provinces with those to the north and east and Europe with Asia. Moreover, the roads from Petersburg to the eastern provinces pass through it as does the railway to Moscow. The more important public buildings are the Demidow secondary school, a high school, theatre, 4 brick-built bridges, statue of Demidow, the founder of the school, a boulevard alongside the riverside and a park and public garden just outside the town. There is also a post office, train station and a steam-boat landing stage. The town was founded during the reign of Jarosław, the Grand Duke of Kiev, son of Wlodzimierz I. Initially it was dependent on the Rostow and Wlodzimierz Duchies and then the Smolensk. From 1219, it gained its independence and was governed by its own Princes. The most important of these were: Wsiewolod and Iwan, sons of Konstantyn the Grand Duke of Wlodzimierz and Wasil Wsiewolodowicz. In 1267, the Jarosław and Perejaslow duchies amalgamated and were ruled by Dymitr, Aleksander Newski’s son. In 1279 he gave it to Teodor Roscislawicz from Mozaj. He, in turn, after acquiring the Smolensk duchy on his brother’s death, combined them. When in 1298 his older brother’s son, Aleksander Hlebowicz took over the Duchy, Teodor was obliged to retain only the Jarosław duchy, in spite of attempts to regain the Smolensk one. His 2 sons by his second wife, Dawid and Konstanty, followed and then came Wasil Dawidowicz, who died in 1426. From then until 1607 nothing more was heard of the Jarosław princes. In 1607 there is mention of the Jarosław prince Andrzej. Peter I made Jarosław the provincial town of the Moscow province. During Catherine II’s reign it was made the capital of the province.

Jarosław powiat

 

The Jarosław district covers an area of 24,7 sq miles, is flat, has many rivers including the Wolga, Kotorosta, and Pama. The soil is clay and sandy, farming is insignificant. There are 146000 inhabitants mainly involved in the grain trade, producing articles from copper and bronze, nails, peasant hats and shoes. Many are engaged in masonry and carpentry. In Wielikoje there is a large fair selling homemade articles from flax, yarn and linen. In the area there is also a bleachery and a canvas factory ran according to the Dutch principle. In Pleszczejew there is a paper mill, one of the best in Russia.

 

The Jarosław province belongs to the greater Russia and lies in the center of Russia, to the north east of Moscow. To the north, it borders with Wologodzka province, to the west with the Nowogrod and Twersk provinces, to the south with the Wlodzimierz one and east with the Wlodzimierz and Kostrom provinces. It was established in 1777 and is divided into 10 counties.: Jarosław, Danilow, Lubim, Molog, Myszkin, Poszechon, Roman-Borysohleb, Rostow, Rybin and Uglick. It covers an area of 646,76 sq. miles of which 1,166,600 dziesiecin are cultivated, 308,000 are meadows, 267,000 are woodland. There are 308,000 inhabitants of which 468,691 are male and 539,624 female. 931,783 - Orthodox, 7,548 –Roskolnik persuasion, 481 – Catholics, 169 – Protestants, 627 – Jews, 83 – Muslims. There are 1561 heads pro sq. mile. Generally speaking the area is even but in the southern part of the Rostow province, near the Wolga, there are some higher-lying patches. The provinces Rostow, Poszechon, Lubim, Danilow, and Molog are low-lying and partially swampy especially the entire northern part of the latter between the rivers Szeksna and Molog. In Spring, when the aforementioned rivers swell, the area turns into a large lake. The soil in the counties on the right bank the Wolga is stony, apart from Rostow county, which is clay, often even swamp. However, the soil on the left bank is clay and in the vicinity of the Wolga, sandy. The most important navigable rivers flowing through the province are the Wolga, Szeksna and Mologa with their many streams and streamlets. The more significant lakes are Nero in Rostow county, Jachrobol in Danilow county and Chorlam in Molog county. Swamps are found mainly in the following counties: Molog, Poszczechon, and partially in Danilow, Rostow, and Rybinsk. The province has sufficient woodland and trading in firewood is extensive. Construction timber is scarce and so it is floated down from the Nowogrod, Twersk and partially Wologodz provinces. Jarosław province is a manufacturing one, farming is not important as there is not enough fertile land. They grow various medicinal herbs such as mint, camomile, sage, gurian, basil, also cauliflower, chicory and others all of which bring in many thousands of rubles yearly. The most productive counties are Poszczechon, Lubim and in part Myszkin. The main occupation is farming and the grain trade. Many work in the ship-building trade and other industries whereas others seek their fortune outside the province. The province is most famous for its cloth-manufacturing, an industry which employs more than 50000 people and sells the wares for over 1200000 rs.

 

Wielkoje Selo and surrounds is the centre of this industry. The largest factories are ones manufacturing hide, candles, cloth (17) linens and cotton articles. Jarosław linens and table-cloths are known for their excellent quality. Z[dzisław] R[ulikowski]

 

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1882, vol. 3, pp. 454-458]

 

This translation, by Jolanta Jurasinska, is used by permission.

  
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