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Słownik Geograficzny Translations

Tajenko

Tajenko, a village and manorial farmstead on the eastern shore of Lake Tajno, Szczuczyn county, Pruska gmina, Barglów parish. In 1827 there were 30 houses, 179 inhabitants. In 1866 the Tajenko manorial farmstead had an area of 1,150 mórgs: 180 of farmland and gardens, 150 of meadows, 240 of forests, 300 of thickets, 280 unused. The village of Tajenko has 29 settlements, 143 mórgs. [No author named].

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, p. 144]

 

This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Fall 2002 issue of "Rodziny, The Journal of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".


Tajno

Tajno, village, Szczuczyn county, Pruska gmina, Barglów parish. It lies about 2 milas [about 15 km.] southeast of Rajgród, on the northern shore of the lake of the same name, in a wooded and swampy region. It has an elementary school, gmina office, 95 settlements, 948 inhabitants, and 2,293 mórgs of land. In 1827 there were 72 houses, 434 inhabitants. The Tajno starostwo, unaffiliated with a gród, was in Podlaskie province, Bielsk district, according to Treasury lists from 1771. It was owned by Anna Rostkowska, who paid a kwarta of 2,289 zlp., 14 groszy, and a hyberna of 611 zlp., 24 groszy. At the 1773-1775 Sejm the States of the Commonwealth bestowed this estate in emphyteutic possession upon Krzysztof Frankowski, delegate of Zakroczym district. At that time the estate included Tajno and the villages of Barglówka, Lipowe, Nowiny, Wozna, Orzechówka, Polkowe, Piekutowo, and Uscianka. (Br(onislaw) Ch{lebowski)

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, p. 145]

 

This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Fall 2002 issue of "Rodziny, The Journal of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".


Tarnobrzeg

Tarnobrzeg, a town and county seat in Galicia, on the right bank of the Wisła [Vistula]; it has a station of the Nadbrzezie-Dębica railroad, and is 71 km. northeast of Dębica. A highway runs through the town from Dębica to where the San flows into the Wisla, and continues along the left bank of the San to Jarosław. Tarnobrzeg is 173 meters above sea level, and towers to some extent over the sandy plain from which it rises. The town's northern part, with the beautiful castle of Count Jan Tarnowski, forms the separate gmina of Dzików.

 

The town does not have a parish church (it belongs to the parish in the neighboring village of Miechocin), only a Dominican church and monastery founded in 1676 by Jan Stanisł. Amor Tarnowski and his wife Zofia Barbara z Dabrowicy née Firlej. In the church is an image of the Blessed Mother, transferred from the castle in Dzików and recognized as miraculous by Kraków bishop Trzebicki in 1675. This picture was transferred in a ceremony on 20 May 1678. Since then a procession has been held several times a year from the monastery to the castle.

 

In early November 1734 the agreement of the Confederation of Tarnogród, designed to keep Stanislaw Leszczynski on the throne against August III, was signed in Dzików castle. This beautiful Gothic castle, which is well maintained, holds many relics of the past, works of art, and a sizable library, rich in old Polish prints. These collections were assembled by Stanislaw Jan Feliks Tarnowski (1779, t 1872).

 

The town itself occupies 124.1 hectares and numbers 2,460 inhabitants: 960 Roman Catholics, 13 Greek Catholics, 2 Protestants, and 2,475 Jews. It consists primarily of wooden houses. In the town is the office of the starosta [local administrative official] with a building and tax department, the county court, a tax office, a postal and telegraph office, and a 4-grade elementary school. Autonomous authorities are a county council and a district school board. Two doctors are permanent residents of the town, and there is a pharmacy, as well as several shops. A loan society works to facilitate credit; in 1889 its return came to 152,097 Rhenish zlotys. Markets are held every Wednesday. The gmina administration consists of the mayor, his assistant, a secretary, and a police inspector.

 

The history of the town is unknown. The whole area of this county-covering part of the river-basin of the right bank of the Wisla and the San, which flows into the Wisla-comprises a wet lowland covered with the great Sandomierz forest, and was not populated until quite late. For this reason it was primarily large properties that developed here.

 

Colonization advances along the banks of the Wisla and the San. Baranów, on the Wisla, became a town as early as the 14th century, and Radomysl nad Sanem in 1556. The first parish churches were in Miechocin on the Wisla in 1326 and Baranów in 1440. We owe the colonization of the area mainly to several powerful families who are its proprietors by way of royal grants. In the mid-16th century the main land-owners were: the Mieleckis (Mikolaj, Podolia voivode, and Hieronim), the Tarnowskis (Stanislaw, Radom castellan as of 1578), and Andrzej Leszczynski (in Baranów). The Pokrzywnica monastery (Pokrzywnica on the left bank of the Wisla) owns the village of Nagnajów [Editor: Pokrzywnica is called Koprzywnica today]. Nadbrzezie is a settlement on the outskirts of Sandomierz. Jakub Siemienski founded Radomysl nad Sanem. According to 1578 tax registers Stanislaw Tarnowski owned property in Dzików. How long the period of forest life lasted is attested by 1578 registers that list as a separate category of the rural populace "venatores" [Latin, "hunters"]. In Chmielów (not far from Tarnobrzeg) 34 of them were located on 10 lans, and in other villages each had even more.

 

The church in Dzików dates from the end of the 17th century. Registers from 1662 do not mention Tarnobrzeg, which surely was a settlement on the outskirts of Dzików. The historian Długosz (in Liber beneficiorum) knows and describes the adjacent communities of Dzików and Mokrzyszów, and also Miechocin, but does not mention Tarnobrzeg. Craftsmen and merchants settling near the lord's residence in Dzików gave rise to the settlement that at the beginning of the current century was still a small marketplace (a Markt per the Post-Lexikon of Crusius, 1802). Echard's Slownik and Plater's Geografta say nothing of Tarnobrzeg. The settlement's name is surely an ancient term for one of the areas around Dzików, and is related in form to names such as Bialobrzeg [Editor: according to Kazimierz Rymut's Nazwy miast Polski, Krakow, 1987, brzeg means"(river) bank," and Tarno- is from the name of the town's founder, Count Tarnowski].

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, p.183-184]

 

This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Summer 2002 issue of "Rodziny, Journal of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".


Tarnobrzeg powiat

Tarnobrzeg county covers 9.2592 square miriametrs [1 miriameter = 10 km.] and numbers 60,078 inhabitants in 70 political gminas and 68 cadastral gminas. It occupies the northernmost part of Galicia, and borders the Kingdom of Poland on the northwest and northeast, Mielec county on the southwest, and Kolbuszowa and Nisko counties on the east. It is low, sandy country, to a large extent covered with pine forests and watered by the Wisla and its smaller tributaries, the Trzesn and Łeg, as well as by the San, into the right bank of which the Bukowa and Lukowica flow in this county. The well-hydrated riverlands are fertile, but the rest has poor, sandy soil, from beneath which quicksand comes to the surface. Only in recent years has work begun on planting trees in the dunes and thus stabilizing them.

 

According to Dr. Pilat's Wiadomosci statystyczne (Lwów 1891), of the whole area, which totals 166,633 mórgs, major estates, or property entered in the hypothecary registers, occupy 84,520 mórgs, and minor estates 81,112. Of these, farmland comprises 55,700 (16,008 major vs. 38,790 minor), meadows 22,318 (11,815 vs. 10,503), gardens 622 (221 vs. 401), pastureland 20,511 (2,176 vs. 18,339), forests 56,380 (51,969 vs. 4,411), bogs and ponds 1,435 (all major), unused 8,615 (748 vs. 7,866), for buildings 946 (142 vs. 805). Due to the rather large complex of Count Tarnowski's estates, only 13.57% of the land in this county is in the hands of Jews. Of 59 land-owners (there are no public and church-owned estates at all), 45 are Christians and 14 Jews. Of those owning over 200 mórgs, 44 are Christians and 9 are Jews; of those owning fewer than 200 mórgs, 1 was Christian and 5 were Jews. Jews possess a total of 11,617 mórgs of farmland, meadows, and pastureland, and 4,640 of forests. There are a total of 156 registered properties; 144 of them are inns, 12 distilleries, 3 breweries, 14 mills, 3 sawmills, and 54 manorial farm-steads.

 

Industry is undeveloped, and since the soil is not fertile, this county is one of the poorer ones. The industrial stagnation was caused by the lack of means of communication and the frequent floods of the Wisla and the San. Currently, as a result of the construction of the Debica-Nadbrzezie railway, the county has undertaken the task of building embankments on the Wisla, controlling the San and Leg, and planting forests to anchor the dunes.

 

The political county is divided into two judicial districts, that of Tarnobrzeg and that of Rozwadów. The former covers 44 gminas, 86 manorial areas and 37,551 inhabitants; the latter covers 26 gminas, 24 manorial areas, and 12,294 inhabitants. Mac. [Dr. Maurycy Maciszewski]

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, p.184-185]

 

This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Summer 2002 issue of "Rodziny, Journal of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".


Tarnowiec

Tarnowiec - a village in Jasło county 1, situated on the hill 268 meters above sea level, on the Jasiołka river, near railway station between Jasło (9 km away) and Jedlicze (6 km away) train stations. The village has a Roman Catholic parish, a village school, a railway station, a post office and a telegraph, a poorhouse and a lending office with a capital of 54 złr 2. In the 1884 there were 6 manorial houses and 553 residents; 534 Catholics and 19 Jews.

 

The major estate holder (Konstanty Piliński 3) has a distillery and an inn, 459 mórgs 4 of farmland, 104 mórgs of meadows, 17 of pasture land, 83 of forests, 2 of barren lands, 3 mórgs of building lots, totaling all in all 675 mórgs. The minor estate is comprised of 209 mórgs of farmland, 71 of meadows and gardens, 24 pasture land and 6 mórgs of forests.

 

The present church built of bricks was erected in 1804 on the site of the old one by the priest Waldemar Rawicz Karwowski. A copy of the act of its founding by Piotr Rokosz in 1313, a knight of Malta, kept in parish records, is a fake.

 

The parish “in Tharnowyecz” (L.B. II, 286 and III, 482 5) dates back to the 15th century.  In those days, according to Długosz 6, Tarnowiec was heired by Kruszyna of the Mądrostki coat of arms. Tithes in the amount of 4 grzywny 7 were being paid by peasant farmers to the deanery of St. Florian in Kleparz.

 

In the year 1581 (Pawiński, Małopolska 8, p.120) Tarnowiec was the property of Paweł Skotnicki, ensign of Halicz 9 and had 6 peasant lans 10, 2 farms with no farmland, 1 farm workers with cattle, 3 farm workers without cattle, 1 craftsman and an inn with a quarter of lan.

 

The parish was comprised of: Brzezówka, Potakowa (today Potakówka), Glinnik (Gliniczek), Wrocanka, Tarnóweczek and Unieszcz (today Umieszcz). Dobrucowa is listed in 1665 census (Pawinski, l.c.), Gosówka and Sadkowa were settled later on. A dormitory of unknown origin for 4 persons has a brick building and a meadow.

 

The manorial farmstead’s yield: 9 kopas 11 of cereals, one wagon of hay, 10 wagons of dead wood, a field of cabbage and 24 złr.; per annum.

 

Tarnowiec borders on the south with Umieszcz and Potakówka, on the west with Czeluśnica and with Gliniczek, on the north with Sadkowa and Dobrucowa, and on the east with Brzezówka.

 

On August 14 in 1610 Stanisław Stadnicki sup>12, called the Devil, with a band of hooligans and ruffians of different origins was defeated here by the people of his enemy Łukasz Opaliński 13, a marshal of the Crown, and by those of the princess Anna Ostrogska 14. About 6.000 people fighted. Stadnicki died with some 500 of his people, the rest of his troops were dispersed.

 

Tarnowiec– Slovak. Trnowec, Hung. Tarnócz, a little town in Hungary, in county of Liptov,west of Wielki Bobrowiec (Velki Bobrovec, Nagy Bobrócz), south-east of Sielnica, on the Pietruszka stream (Petrouszka), a tributary of Wag, at an altitude of 559 meters.

 

According to the list of officials (szematyzm) by the diocese of Spis in 1891, Tarnowiec had 772 inhabitants (67 Roman Catholics, 695 Protestants, 5 Orthodox and 5 Jews). The parish of Tarnowiec dates back to the year 1200, birth certificates’ records date back to 1775. Apart from the Roman Catholic church there is one Evangelical church.

 

Tarnowiec

1) also called Tarnówiec, official Tarnowce (after year 1845), holendry 15, in Buk county, (Lutomyśl), 10 kilometres west-north of Lwówek (R. Cath parish), post office in Zębowo, a railway station in Lutomyśl (Neutomischel); has 8 houses, 60 inhabitants (22 Roman Catholics, 38 Protestants) and 325 hectars (206 of farm land, 33 of meadows and 15 of forests). Formerly Tarnowiec was a part of Lwówek estates, its existence date back to the end of the past century when Tarnowiec belonged to Melchior Korzbok Łącki.

 

Tarnowiec, also see Tarnówko, Tarnowo.

 

Notes

[1] administrative subdivision used in Poland since the 14th century, smaller than provinces but larger than gminy or gromady; abolished in 1975, roughly comparable to a county in the U. S, reinstated with new boundaries on January 1, 1999
[2] złoty reński – Rhenish zloty, the former German and Austro-Hungarian florin
[3] count of Tarnowiec, a member of the County Council in Jasło, deputy to the Galicya Sejm, contributed to development of the culture and education in the Tarnowiec area in 19th century)
[4] morga (pl. mórg)  - a unit of land measurement; per Gerald Ortell’s book on Polish parish records, in the Russian partition 1 morg = 1.388 acres, in the Prussian 1 morg = 0.631 acres, and in Galicia 1 morg = 1.422 acres. A full-sized farm had about 30 mórgs.
[5] “Liber Beneficiorum ecclesiae Craceviensis”, (volume II, page 286 and volume III, page 482) by Polish historian Jan Długosz ("Book of the Benefices of the Bishopric of Cracow”).
[6] Jan Długosz (1415 – 1480) (lat. Johannes Longinus) Polish medieval historian and famous chronicler of Polish history, diplomat of King Casimir Jagiellończyk, secretary of Bishop Z. Oleśnicki, canon of Cracow.
[7] grzywna (pl. grzywny) - an ancient silver coin, worth several denarii, used in Poland and other countries of Europe
[8] Adolf Pawiński: Małopolska (Little Poland) volumes XIV and XV edited by: Źródła dziejowe (Historical sources), volumes III and IV edited by”Polska 16 wieku” (16th century’s Poland).
[9] Halicz – a town in current Ukraine. A latinized form of the town’s name gave birth to Galicia – (Galizien), belonging to the Austro-Hungarian monarchy and formerly part of the Commonwealth. In the 11th –12th centuries the town was a capital of the Duchy of Halicz and a military center in the 14th –17th centuries.
[10] lan - an unit of land measurement used in Poland since the 13th century; it means "field" under cultivation and originally was used as a description of a full-sized farm; in medieval times it was from 3 to 50 hectares, but in Malopolska the Franconian lan was used, 23-28 hectares
[11] 1 kopa = 60 units (i.e. of sheaves)
[12]
Stanisław Stadnicki "diabeł łańcucki” – “Devil of town of Lancut”, a Polish noble man (magnate), a famous brawler and rebel.
[13] Lukasz Opalinski (1581-1654) Grand Marshal of the Crown.
[14] Anna Ostrogska nee Kostek (1575-1635)
[15] Holendry  - (literally means the Dutch), settlements in Poland populated by Dutch or German colonists.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, pp. 206-207]

 

This translation, by Greg Gregorczyk, is used by permission.


Tłukomy

also know as Tłukom and Elsingen. After 1870 a village and manor in the District of Wyrzysk, about 6 kilometers to the northeast of Wysoka (location of Protestant Parish and post office) and 10 kilometers southwest of Lobzenica on the shores of a lake with an elevation of 102 meter above sea level. The Catholic Church is in Blugowo, and the railway station is in Krajenka (Krojanke) about 12 kilometers away. In 1578 Tłukomy to the Tłukomski Family: Jan had 10 lan, settlement and 4 cottages, Stanislaw had 4 lan and 2 cottages, and Piotr had 1 lan and 2 cottages. In 1618 there were in all of Tłukomy 14 lan, 4 cottages and a windmill. After the end of the last century, Pawel Lakinski of Czajcze inherited Tłukomy. In recent times it belonged to various Germans. In the area of Tłukomy were excavated imaged drachma from the Island of Thasos and iron buckles covered with gold foil. (J.N. Sadowski). After 1830 it was divided into the Wielki (Great) Tłukomy and Male (Little) Tłukomy. a) Tłukomy Wielki, Gross Elsingen, is a village and manor. The village has 19 homes, 180 inhabitants (114 Catholic, 66 Protestant) and 222 hectares (179 in fields, 32 in meadow).  The manor house is of brick.  Male Tłukomy together with the adjacent manor has 14 homes, 243 inhabitants (143 Catholics and 100 Protestants) and 910 hectares (640.35 in fields, 97.45 in meadow, 40.95 in pasture, 99.92 in forest, 21.86 unusable, and 10.35 of water). Clear profit from the land was 12089 marks. The Neuzelle Fund of Brandenburg owns the brickworks, pair of distilleries and cattle breeding. b) Tłukomy Małe (Little), Klein Elsingen is a manorial farm lying in the area of the Manor of Tłukomy Wielki (Great). E. Cal.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, p. 347]

 

This translation, by Jerry S. Kucharski, FIC, FICF, is used by permission.


Tokarzyszki [now Tokaryshki, Hrodna oblast, Belarus]

- a farmstead (folwark) and village on Czernica (Black) Creek; in the 3rd police district of Oszmiana province. It is part of the Juraciszki gmina (4.6 miles away), and comprises the Tokarzyszki rural district, lying 32.5 miles from the town of Oszmiana and 23.2 miles from Dziewieniszki. The farmstead has 15 Catholic inhabitants, and the village has 80 Orthodox and 107 Catholics (87 taxable inhabitants from the 1865 census). It is the property of the Rodkiewicz family. The following villages come under the Tokarzyszki rural district: Tokarzyszki, Simonowicze, Gierduszki, Korwiele, Kuprowice, Matykowszczyna, Popielniki, Pozaluski, Wozdwizenska, Wsiepocha, Zabielowce, and Zubowicze. Since 1865, the revisions have identified 164 land-franchised peasants, 2,456 tenant or wage farmers, and 4 single-home gentry.

Editor's Note: All Slownik longitudes in this article have been converted to modern coordinates which is based on the Greenwich zero meridian. All Polish measurement units (land areas, distances, height above sea level, etc.) were converted to American-English equivalents.  Monetary units, where identified, were left in zlotys/zl. or rubles/rs.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, p. 361]

 

This translation, by Mike Gansecki, is used by permission.


Toporów (Galicia)

1) village, Mielec county, (7 kilometers east of Mielec), at the headspring of the Babułówka stream (flowing into the Wisła). The small clearing is surrounded on all sides by pine forest, remnants of the virgin forest of Sandomierz.  The Roman Catholic parish is in Ostrówy Tuszowskie, with which it borders on the east.  The nearest village to the south is Przyłęk, to the northwest Szydłowiec. Toporów has 57 houses, 186 Roman Catholic inhabitants. The larger estate (owned by Karolina, countess of Tarnów) consists of 10 mórgs of farmland, 3 mórgs of pasture land, 278 mórgs 60 sążen of woodland. The lesser domain has 188 mórgs of farmland, 6  mórgs of meadows and pasture land and 3 mórgs of forest.  We first encountered this settlement in the list of villages from 1662, as belonging to the parish in Mielec (Pawiński, Małopolska 55a). During this time there arose amidst the forest region the neighboring settlements of : Olszyny, Cyranka, Komorów and Szydłowiec. Dr. Maurycy Maciszewski and Ludwik Dziedzicki  

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, p. 399]

 

This translation, by Anthony Paddock, is used by permission.


Torczyn [now Torchin, Volyn oblast, Ukraine]

Torczyn 1.) mistakenly Torczyńce, governmental village on the banks of the Sniwoda river, tributary of the Bohu river, in the district Lityń, of the township Kaczanówka, the Roman Catholic parish of Kumanowce, 45 verst (45 x 1066.78 m) from Lityń, has 90 settlments, 492 inhabitans, the area of 1760 dziesięcin (1760 x 1,092 hectares) . It has the Orthodox church called by the name of Saint Paraska, build in 1854, and was granted the land of 94 dziesięcin, has 985 parishioners. At the beginning, the village belonged to the Chmielnicki prefecture. In 1615, it belonged to Mikolaj Kamieniecki. Located on the very Tatars’ route and lately plundered by them "only in summer helpful hands can be expected, due to the poverty no taxes can be collected. There is a mill with one stone and a small manor, on which its own bovine animals are used for work. The total income of the village was 30 florens ( florin a gold coin, weighted 2.3 grams ). The tax (so called kwarta for military purposes) amounts to 6 florins". In 1629, the villages Torczyn and Łozowa, owned by aforesaid Mikolaj Kamieniecki, gave the income of 68 florins and 10 groszy ( 1 grosź 0.033 of a florin ). (Jabłonowski, Lustracye, 53, 188). Next, the village was a part of the the czudynowskie prefecture, which was kept in the emphyteutic possession by senator Ilnicki. The yearly income from entire prefecture amounted to 5083 silver rubels.

 

2.) Torczyn, small town on the banks of the Stawga river, tributary of the Styr river, district of Łuck, near the border of the districk of Włodzimierz, Polish precinct and Torczyn district, 27 verst from Rożyszcza, 26 verst from Łokacz and 23 verst west of Łuck, near the old warszawski road, it has 299 houses, 2675 inhabitans (1941 Jews), The Orthodox church, the Roman Catholic church, 4 Jewish prayer houses, a brewery, a distillery, 21 tanneries, a brick yard, 66 stores, 4 markets, 5 mórg ( 2.8 hectare ) of the hop plantation. The torczyński police precinct includes the following townships: Łuck, Torczyn, Polonka, Czarnków, Szuryn. The Roman Catholic Church, called by the name of the Saint Trinity, built of wood in 1778, by bishop Feliks Turski. The Roman Catholic Parish, łucki deanery, 1373 parishoners, chapels are in Szepiel, Okorsk and in Sa­dow. Torczyński township has 103 registries, with 1365 peasants houses (along with 1642 houses belonging to other social class inhabitans), 18,580 peasant inhabitants (9452 men, 9128 women), 13,094 dziesięcin (1 dziesięcina = 1,092 hectares) of the peasants land. It is very old settlement, mentioned in annals under the name Torczak in 1093 , in the year Połowcy destroyed the settlement, and led away inhabitants, as well under the name Torczew in the year 1169 due to the expedition of the prince Daniel. In XVI century Torczew is owned by the bishops of Łuck. King Zygmunt I in the granted privilege of 1540 year says: "when Jerzy Falczewski, the Roman Catholic Bishop from Łuck, in Torczyn village belonging to the bishopric, bearing his own expenses defended local inhabitants and protected the church property against enemies invasion, we allow the aforesaid property to be expanded to a town; bestow upon it the magdeburg law, set up weekly market and three fairs; for the earlier expansion of the urban settlement, free all burgers from property (szos, in latin: exactio civilis), custom, road, bridge, embankment and sale taxes for 10 years ". The bishop was obligated to maintain one bastion of the castle of Łuck, which, according to audit done in 1545, was in bad shape and needed reconstruction (Jabłonowski, Rewizye, 53). The land property of Torczyn covered 2.77 square miles near the castle and 2 sq miles of the remote settlements, in the area were 14 villages, 8 in the middle of the land property and 6 in its remote part were located. In 1570, the prince Wiktorzin Wierzbicki, the bishop of Łuck, transferred to the kings purse following collected taxes from the Torczyn town: from 16 houses located on market square; 8 grosz per house, from 78 houses standing on streets; 4 grosz per house, from 137 houses on suburbs; 2 grosz per house, from 8 meager houses; 1 grosz per house, from 77 houses out of castle; 2 grosz per house, from 49 craftsmen each 8 grosz, from their 16 apprentices each 1 grosz, from 20 merchants each 7 grosz, from 16 tenants each 7 grosz, from 2 people without permanent residence address each 12 grosz, from 197 1/2 town gardens each 1 grosz, from 90 1/2 town łan(17 ha ); 20 grosz per łan. In 1577, the following taxes were collected:  from 14 houses located on market square; 4 grosz per house, from 60 houses on streets; 4 grosz per house, from 9 meager houses along the fence; 2 grosz per house, from 190 houses on suburbs; 2 grosz per house, from 20 merchants each 7 grosz, from 41 craftsmen each 4 grosz, from their 14 apprentices each 1/2 grosz, from 150 gardens 1 grosz per garden, from 30 houses in the town and in suburbs on the land property 20 grosz per house, from 10 tenants each 4 grosz, from 2 minstrels each 12 grosz, from 5 salesmen each 7 grosz. The excises on liquor (czopowe), in the year, was 40 florins. In 1583, the bishop of Łuck transferred following taxes collected in Torczyn: from 12 houses on the market square; 16 grosz per house, from 29 houses on streets; 8 grosz per house, from 25 houses along the fence; 4 grosz per house, from 199 houses on suburbs; 4 grosz per house, from 30 łan; 30 grosz per łan, from 100 gardens; 2 grosz per garden: from the Orthodox priest (pop) 2 florins, from 3 tailors; 15 grosz each, from 10 furriers; 15 grosz each, from one saddler 1 florin, from 3 smiths 15 grosz each, from 2 sword makers 15 grosz each, from one lock smith 15 grosz, from 7 hatters 15 grosz each, from one saddle maker 15 grosz., from 5 shoe makers 30 grosz each, from 15 meager shoe makers 15 grosz each, from 16 brewers 30 grosz each, from 5 butchers 30 grosz each, from 5 potters 15 grosz each, from 12 bakers and merchants 15 grosz each, from 15 salt salesmen 30 grosz each. Finally, in 1589, following taxes were collected in Torczyn: 44 florin and 12 groszy form land property (szos); from 30 (łan) 30 groszy each, 30 florins; from 21 gardens, one Orthodox priest, tailors, craftsmen, brewers, butchers, bakers, salt salesmen 78 f1orin and 5 groszy; excises on liquor per (arenda) lease 100 florins, in total 252 f1orins 17 grosz (Jabłonowski, .Wołyń, 13, 49,63, 79, 150). The place become prefered residence of the Łuck bishops, where they ended their lives: Aleksander Wyhowski (1714) and Stefan Rupniewski (1731 r.). Then Torczyn become private property and belonged previously to the Karszow family then the Tarnowski counts.

 

3.) Torczyn, village on unnamed tributary of the Bystryjówka river, the district of Radomy, in 3 Polish presincts, the Potyjówka district, 20 verst from Radomyśl, has 822 inhabitants, in 1784, there were 400 inhabitants then in 1863, 707 inhabitants. It has the Ortothox church called by the name of Our Lady of the Nativity, build of wood in 1751, thanks to efforts of the heir Michał Rybiński. To the parish, legally belong the following villages: Pi1ipowicze and Korczew­ka. According to proffesor Pogodin, Torczyn is the ancient Torczesk or Torczewsk, the main castle of the Torki tribe, whose habitat Karamzyn see in today’s Tor­czycy (taraszczański district), equally groundless, since the castle with all probability was in Torczesk range, on the land of the Bezradycze village (kijowski district). In XVI century Torczyce belonged to the estate of the Metropolitan Cathedral, as we can see from the protest of the metropolitan Rutski in 1616, due to occupation of Torczyn and Steczanki by Stry­bol family; In 1636, Torczyn belonged to Piotr Strybol. In the second half of XVIII century it belonged to Rybiński family: Michal, then his son Tadeusz Lukasz, the chemberlain of Kiev, and after 1790 till 1812 Michal’s son, then the estate split into many parts. In 1863, there were following landlords: Bonifacy Dzwonkow­ski 901 dziesięcina (dziesięcina= 1,092 ha) and 91 inhabitants according to the audit, Wiktor Dzwon­kowski 448 dziesięcina and 47 inhabitants, Henryk Hański 628 dziesięcina and 65 inhabitants as well Włodzimierz Stankiewicz, in succession of Gruszczyński family, 380 dziesięcina and 44 inhabitants. Now days, the lendlords: Zwoliński (642 dziesięcina of the agrarian land, 144 dziesięcina of the forest and 9 dziesięcina of the waste land), Hański Karol (210 dziesięcina of land and 95 forest) and other small owners (24 dziesięcina). Additionally, to the Orthodox church belongs 52 dziesięcin. 276 peasants, according to audit, among them 210 ­became proprietors of the 1150 dziesięcina of the land, after repaying each 1041 silver rubles and 13 kopiejki per year. Dr, M.-J. Krz.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, pp. 405-406]

 

This translation, by Jarek Gajewski, is used by permission.


Traby

Traby - a government town on the Gawia River (arising from the Klewo spring or tributary), in the 3rd police district of Oszmiana province, as well as Traby gmina and rural districts. It lies 21 mi. south of Oszmiana, 14 mi. from Dziewieniszki, and 46 miles to Wilno, on the military communications line from Oszmiana to the border of Nowogrodek province. In 1866 it had 78 homes and 499 inhabitants (159 Orthodox, 65 Catholics, 275 Jews); in 1882, 1,238 inhabitants (599 men; 639 women). Traby is the home of Sts. Peter & Paul Orthodox church erected by Zienkowicz in 1784; a Catholic parish church made of wood and founded by Voivod Albert Gasztold in 1534; a synagogue; a gmina administration; and a public school. Inhabitants engage in pottery making, earning wages from the punching and dressing of wool, as well as carrying on a small linen and seed trade.

 

This Orthodox parish of the Oszmiana deaconate (błahoczynia) counts 2,333 parishioners. Included under the Wiszniew deaconate, the Catholic parish has 3,184 faithful. There is a chapel and a parish cemetery in Jancewicze as well as in Tanikowszczynznie. The following comprise the Traby (gmina) rural district: Traby town and villages: Bohdance, Charytony, Gajewce, Kowale, Kuliki, Lodzieniata, Makary, Nozdraki, Piwowarce, Pozniaki, Totarszczyzna, Siemiszcze, Worowszczyzna; and also the settlements: Golubickowszczyzna, Nowosiolki and Rybkowszczyzna. The revision lists of 1865 identified 47 treasury peasants, 388 peasant free-holders and 4 single-home gentry. The gmina belongs to the 1st police district for peasant affairs as well as the 3rd conscription district, and is composed of the five following rural districts: Traby, Gruszence, Bragi, Czeniewicze and Sekienieta, containing around 67 town dwellers, and on estates 495 homes and 4,646 peasants. In 1865 revision lists, the gmina was identified as having 72 treasury peasants, 754 land-holding peasants and 26 single-home gentry.

 

Flax is cultivated on the rich soils of the gmina for use in making linen. In the nearby town can be found a hill ascending in conical shape. On top of this hill still lies the remains of a 15th century castle, probably made of wood and once the seat of the Lithuanian Prince Trabusa, ruler of the surrounding area and at one time perhaps most of Lithuania. Only traces of the castle remain in the the form of ramparts and the crown at the summit of the hill; the rest of the site is overgrown with shrubbery. At the end of the 15th Century (1490 to 1496), Princess Maryna, daughter of Prince Mitki Siekery and widow of Prince Simon Simonowicz Trabski, registered the inheritance of Traby estate first to her grandson, then to her sister Elizabeth, wife of Jan Gasztold, and finally Albert Marcinowicz Gasztold, Voivod of Trocki. In 1543, the entire Gasztold estate, whose family had died out childless with the death of Stanislaus Gasztold, husband of Barbara Radzwill, and with no kin in Traby (according to the Lithuanian version of the story), was donated to King (of Poland) Zygmunt I, who made a present of it to his son, Zygmunt Augustus. But according to treasury records, the Traby estate was established as a dowry for the pleasure of the king, but subsequently the castle-less domain was used in a trade for Traby town, nearby farms and all other appurtenances. These came into the possession of the Franckiewicz and subsequently the Zienkowicz family around 1766, after paying the army tax fee of 2,560 zlotys. In the parliament of 1773-1775, it was declared a national Commonwealth estate and given to the Kings cupbearer from Lida province, Dominick Narbut.

 

Additional Slownik information on Traby from Volume XV: 

 

Traby- a small town in Oszmiana province. A new brick Catholic church was erected there in 1900. The following villages belonged to the Traby sheriff's domain in 1772: Zapolce, Kowale, Nozdraki, Milki, Kilojce, Dunicze, Bohdance, Holubikowszcyna, Kuliki, Sierhieje, Posniaki, Morgiewicze, Sudonie, Siewrymy, Chmielniki, Lubszany, Narejki, Iwanki, Magience, Czerkiesy, Lepieszki, Niechwienki, and Zylicze. Former Sheriffs of Traby were: Stanislaw Pac, Steward of the Lithuanian Grand Duke's Household and Voivod of Vitebsk (1558 and 19 other years); Jan Hajko (1568-75); Wladimir Zabolocki (1580); Nicholas Zenowicz (1617); the knight Filon Drucki Sokolinski (1625); knight Jan Anthony Drucki Sokolinski (1650); Christof Sapieha (1662); George Wawrzyniec Szymkowicz (1692 and 1701); Steven Radzmirski Frackiewicz (1717); from whom it was taken on lease by Lukasz Gau, Andrew and Helen (nee Rdultowski) Zienkiewicz (1772); Dominick Narbut (1775); and Andrew Zienkowicz (1789).

 

In 1794, the sheriff's office was kept as an enfiefed property by Joseph Narbut, Sensechal of Lida, who surrendered the domain in 1801 to Rafael Poplawski. The domain paid the quarterly Treasury army tax of 34,221 zlotys, reckoning 709 serf inhabitants. Poplawski established in Traby for the first time in the Lithuanian gubernia, large factories for the manufacture of clothing goods, employing about 200 people. His son Rafael Zygmont Poplawski held the sheriff's sinecure for his father in 1827, and governed it basically as an enfiefinent without a lease up till 1844, then with a lease to 1847, after which the Traby sheriff s office went into administrative Treasury receivership. In 1772, the Sheriff's Office paid a 20 zloty annuity to the Gieranony Catholic church, 981 zlotys to the army treasury tax, 125 zl. in tap and [ed-. **szelazny**?] fees, 250 zl. in salary wages, 40 zl. for the bailiff, with a gross income of 11,897 zl. and a net income of 10,234 zlotys, of which 2,558 zl. went to the Commonwealth Treasury. In 1789, the Traby Sheriff's office generated 20,770 zl. in income, of which 1/2 went to the Treasury. In 1794, income generated was 19,769 zl. 31 Christian and 17 Jewish individuals were listed in the category of "townspeople" whose residential buildings needed repair.

Editor's Note: All Slownik longitudes in this article have been converted to modern coordinates which is based on the Greenwich zero meridian. All Polish measurement units (land areas, distances, height above sea level, etc.) were converted to American-English equivalents.  Monetary units, where identified, were left in zlotys/zl. or rubles/rs.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, p. 441; 1902, vol. 15, p. 662]

 

This translation, by Mike Gansecki, is used by permission.


Tribunowo

- a peasant village in the 3rd police district of Oszmiana powiat, lying 46 miles from Oszmiana and 32 miles to Dziewieniszki. It has two homes with 12 inhabitants.

Editor's Note: All Slownik longitudes in this article have been converted to modern coordinates which is based on the Greenwich zero meridian. All Polish measurement units (land areas, distances, height above sea level, etc.) were converted to American-English equivalents.  Monetary units, where identified, were left in zlotys/zl. or rubles/rs.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, p. 528]

 

This translation, by Mike Gansecki, is used by permission.


Trutnowo

Trutnowo, a village in Tuchola county, served by the post office and Catholic parish in Lubiewo, 346 hectares (172 of farmland, 25 of meadows, 16 of forests); in 1885, there were 40 houses, 47 hearths, 243 inhabitants, 238 of them Catholic, 5 Protestant. A 1568 inspection report states that Adam Żaliński, a district judge, owned 60 farm włókas in Trutnowo; there were two farmers who were recent arrivals and two gardens. According to Goldbeck's Topography, in 1789, Trutnowo had 12 hearths. In 1363, [Teutonic Knights] Commander Winrich v. Kniprode "granted the worthy Wolfram and his descendants and successors 24 włókas of land in Trutnowo on the basis of a Chełmno law charter. For this, he is to do military service and help with construction. On each settled włóka, he is to give 1 bushel of oats, and, in recognition of our authority, 1 pound of wax and 1 Cologne coin" (see Codex Belnensis, page 43). In 1602, Magdalena Mortęska acquired Trutnowo by inheritance from the Żalińskis for a convent in Bysławek near Tuchola. As a result of the secularization of church properties, in 1772 it passed into private hands (see Klasztory żeńskie by Rev. Fankidejski, page 124). According to a 1648 tax record, the nuns paid 21 florins, 2 pence on 5 gardens (see Roczniki T. P. N. in Poznań, 1871, page 181). In 1887, its owner, Gollnick, found a number of urns there in a field. The village forms an enclave in Świecie county. [Rev. Frydrychowicz]

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, p. 525]

 

This translation, by William F. Hoffman, is used by permission. All rights reserved.


Trześń

3) also known as Trześnia, village in the district of Kolbuszowa, lies in a sandy and forested plain, 9 kilometers west of Kolbuszowa, at the headspring of the so-called Swierczówka River (also called Olszaniec or Przyrwa) flowing into the Łęg River. The highway from Kolbusowa to Rzemień on the Wisłoka River runs through the village.  There is a Roman Catholic parish in Niwiska. Together with the major estate holder (Karol Hippman), the village is comprised of 69 houses with 395 residents, 381 Roman Catholics and 4 Jews. The overall territory is comprised of 238 mórgs of farm land, 64 mórgs of meadows, 2 mórgs 722 fathoms of gardens, 23 mórgs of pasture land, 342 mórgs of forests, 2 mórgs of barren land and 1 mórg of 378 fathoms of developed parcels; the lesser domain is comprised of 381 mórgs of farm land, 53 mórgs of meadows and gardens, 137 mórgs of pasture land and 44 mórgs of forests. The community loan association has assets of 516 Rhineland złoty. In 1581 (Pawiński, Little Poland, 255) Trześnia, in the parish of Weryń (today Kolbuszowa), was owned by Stanisław Tarnowski and it numbered 19 peasants, 1.5 łans and 2 tenant farmers without cattle. Trześnia borders on the north with Siedlanka, on the south with Hucisko, on the east with Nowa Wieś and Zapole, and on the west with Niwiska.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, p. 575-576]

 

This translation, by Anthony Paddock, is used by permission.


Tuchów

Tuchów - a small town, in Tarnow powiat, on the Biala river, on rail line and the highway from Tarnow (21 kilometers away) to the county seat of Grybow. Predominantly built up with single story homes, it lies on the left bank of the Biala river, which curves in this area to surround Tuchów on the west and north; the altitude is 237 meters above sea level. The terrain rises to an altitude of 343 meters above sea level to the east and 300 meters to the west. On the right bank of the Biala, the homes are scattered, creating a suburb with a rural look. The highway leads eastward to Ryglice and Brzostek. On the left side of the river stands the parish church (from the year 1460); on the right is what was originally a parish church, and later, up to the year 1810, a monastery. In the city is a county court, a railway station, a post office and telegraph (office),a people's 4 class school, the gmina offices, tax and notary offices, a doctor and several shops. In 1865 the gmina established a loan society for craftsmen (loans up to 50 zlr.). A hospital or home for invalids, of unknown origin, possesses a building and 1651 zlr. [Translator's Note: zlr. stands for zloty renski, the former German and Austro-Hungarian florin. A powiat was roughly equivalent to our "county," a gmina was a rural administrative district, a subdivision of a powiat.]

 

The town itself, in 1880, had 177 homes, and 1179 inhabitants; if one includes the suburbs, it had 385 homes and 2337 inhabitants (1090 men, 1247 women) - 2062 Roman Catholics, 10 Greco-Catholics (Orthodox) and 265 Jews. According to the 1890 census, there were 390 homes, 479 farms, and 2365 inhabitants. A chart from 1891 gives different figures: 2506 inhabitants, that is, 2290 Roman Catholics, 6 Greco-Catholics and 210 Jews. The town covers a surface area of 2138 mórgs. Functioning estate, 129,475 zlr., inactive 1235 zlr. The majority estate (belonging to Wlad. Rozwadowski) has 6 inns, a mill, and a grange, 463 mórgs of fields, 13 of meadows, 3 of gardens, 17 mórgs and 131 sazens of pastureland, 249 mórgs and 815 sazen's of woods, 2 unusable mórgs, and 1410 sazen's of building lots, for a total of 748 mórgs. The minor estate has 1027 mórgs of farmland, 65 of meadows and gardens, 131 of pastureland, and 59 of woods. [Translator?s Note: in Austrian Poland 1 mórg = .575464 hectares, 1 sazen = 2.1336 meters, but these values varied from one place to another and it is difficult to know for sure exactly which is meant in a given text.]

 

After the abolition of the Benedictine monastery and transfer of the Tuchów estates to government ownership, they were sold at auction. In recent times (about 1889), these estates, consisting of 22 farmsteads and 9360 acres of forest, were owned by Baron Hirsch. In the 11th century Tuchów belonged to the abbots of Tyniec, for it is mentioned in the confirmation of privileges of the Tyniec monastery by Cardinal Idzi in the year 1105. In the year 1341 Casimir the Great allowed the abbots to establish a city and transferred it from Polish law to that of Magdeburg. (Codex of Tyniec, issued in Lwow in 1871, page 76). The city was to have 60 Frankish lans. Besides the usual rights bestowed upon wójts, the abbot received one slab of salt, and should there be more slabs, the king reserved these for himself. In addition, he received the right to collect one grzywna every Saturday, if a slab of salt had been extracted and the salt hauled away (Berkrecht) [Translator's Note: this is presumably the German term Bergrecht, "law governing mine," or perhaps "(the King's) mining rights"]. The salt inspectors were to employ the same laws as those of Wieliczka and Bochnia.

 

The city developed on the left bank of the river; the wooden church stood in the village on the right bank. Therefore, in the year 1456, the abbots obtained from Callistus III permission to unite the pastorate with the monastery, and when the last secular pastor Daniel died, the parish was transferred to the church in the city (date of construction unknown) and entrusted to the monks, who established a priory at the former church. They combined the parish's endowment with the priory's, leaving the parish meager income. Długosz complains of this, charging the abbot with violating the regulation of St. Benedict, changing the monks and hermits into residents and secular priests. At the time, there were in Tuchów 17 lans owned by residents, from which tithes were paid with wheat or oats, or money. The value of the tithes was 6 grzywnas, 18 measures of wheat, and as much of oats. The abbot had a manse and a predium from which 4 grzywnas were given as tithes to the pastorate. The soltys had 2 fields, from which he paid a tithe to the parish. The tenants of the city gave one grosz to the pastor at Christmas; those of the village, ? grosz. [Translator's Note: the grzywna and grosz were coins ? it is difficult to approximate their value in terms that make sense today. A lan is literally a "field," but was also a measurement of acreage, a Frankish lan was 43.2 mórgs, according to Gerald Ortell's book Polish Parish Records of the Roman Catholic Church: Their Use and Understanding in Genealogical Research, PGSA 1996 ? a book which, incidentally, would be very helpful to anyone trying to make sense of all this.]

 

In addition, the townspeople paid the room and board of the schoolmaster. To the pastor belonged a field of three parts. From the gardens, the townspeople each paid the abbots rents of 1 grzywna and 2 groszy; some paid 2 grzywnas and 8 groszy each; from the pastures, they gave 2 quarts of honey. The slaughter houses brought 2 grzywnas less 6 groszy and 7 stones [a measure of weight] of tallow, the spa 2 grzywnas, and the fish houses, shops of salt, and the cobblers - 3 grzywnas and 8 groszy. The soltys collected the rents, from which he withheld every sixth donar (a coin value), and beyond that, had 2 water mills (Długosz, Liber Beneficiorum, III, 199).

 

The following belonged to the parish in Długosz's day: Siedliska, Dabrowa, Beschwoschowa (Bistuszowa), Burzyn, Meszna, Libuszowa or Lube (Lubassowa), Buchcice, Kolanowice and Piotrkowice with a branch church. In 1536 (Pawinski, Malopolska, 548), the taxmasters expressed themselves thus: 

 

THUCHOW- the city of the reverend abbot of Tyniec. The inhabitants and nearby residents have fields in it, from which they pay rent of 15 grzywnas, 2 groszy and 7 denars, 72 bushels of oats; from the baths, the slaughterhouses, the cobblers, bakery shops and salt stores; likewise, from the fuller (cloth maker) flow 32 grzywnos, 30? groszy, 200 chickens and nothing more; a Manse, a good Predium, 2 good ponds and 2 abandoned ones, a mill, a stamp trough of which they rate the income at 30 grzywnas, a forest adequate for their needs. On the day of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin [2 February], an income from the inhabitants and the nearby residents is 30 grzywnas. Buchcice and Meszna belonged to the parish.

Judging by highway paid off in 1581 (Ibid., 266), Tuchów was smaller than Strzyzin, Tarnow, Pilzno, and Ropczyce, bigger than Brzostek, Debica, Zochow. 62 florins were paid for the road from the city, 10 from the city's fields, 8 from tenants, 27 from craftsmen, 5 from butchers, 5 from distillers, 4 from the mill, 2 from peddlers, for a total of 67 florins and 24 groszy

 

In 1627 the provost of the Benedictines, Sebastian Pilsz built a new brick church, which burned down in 1789. The current one was built, at personal cost, by Provost Odo Kontenlowicz. The construction lasted from 1791 to 1800. In 1864 the Pastor-canon Stanislaus Zabierzewski remodeled and repainted it. The abbots resided in the manor, and collected income from Tuchów, Lubaszowa, Meszna Opacka, Brzozowa and Brzostek. The last abbot was Florian Amand Janowski, appointed bishop of Tarnow in 1786. Up till 1810 the Benedictines ran the parish, after which the estate was confiscated and finally sold. At present the following belong to the parish (in Tuchów deanery): Joniny, Kowalowy, Uniszowa, Bistuszowa and Kielanowice.

 

Tuchów is bordered on the south by Siedlisko and Kielanowice; on the west by Meszna Opacka and Szlackecka; on the north by Garbek and Karwodrza; on the east by Zalaszowa and Uniszowa.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, pp. 599-600]

 

This translation, by Martin C. Mazurk, is used by permission.


Turew

Also called Turwia, Turwa in 1398, Thurew 1398, Twrechw 1400, village and estate in the powiat (district) of Koscianski, located about 10 km from Czempinia, southeast on the track to Krzywinia along the stream that flows into lake Zbech, borders on Wyskoc, Rogaczewem, Rabinem, Donatowem, Wronowem and Golebinem; Catholic parish is in Wyskoc, along with the school and the post office. The railway station is in Czempinia. The village has 42 houses, 448 Catholic inhabitants and 1 Protestant. 296 hectares of land (262 farmland, 21 fields), income from farming is 1,488 mrk. and 1,097 mrk. from the fields. The estate has 30 houses, 538 Catholics and 1270 hectares of land (843 farmland, 78 fields, 6 pastures, 269 forest, 76 not used, 471 water). Income from farming is 15,497 mrk. The owners of the estate are descendants of Tadeusz Chlapowski. Between the years 1395 and 1398 the owner was Tomislaw of Turew. In 1400 the estate was illegally taken over by Jarota from Wilkowa. In 1580 belongs to Turew; 1773 went to Stanislaw Chlapowski who had power disputes with the Dominican order from Poznan. Followed by inheritance by Donatowa, Józef Chlapowski, Wronowo and Rabin. The estate was recently inherited by Dezydery Chlapowski, a General in the Polish Military. The saying “Sir Turwi and Golebina. You can drink old wine” is attributed to Weryha Darowski who came from the Golebina line, an old Szoldrski family. A Swedish gravesite can be found about 1500 feet south of Turew along the road to Koposzewka.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, p. 638]

 

This translation, by Donald Szumowski, is used by permission.



Turów [now Turov, Gomel oblast, Belarus]

Today the city is called Turów, but in days gone by it appeared as Tur or Tiver (Lelewel)) on maps and as Turoviain in Latin documents. It is a small town on the right bank of the Prypec River, in the district of Petrykow, in the third Polish region and in the parish of Turów. It lies on the road running through Petrykow and Skryhalow to Mozyrza (approx. 126 verst). The region is low-lying and so prone to over flooding. It has 500 wooden houses and a population of 2,900. The districts of Zajatele and Zapiaseczne belong to the town, too. It is made up of two Greek Orthodox churches, a Catholic chapel, three Jewish houses of prayer, a Greek Catholic school with two classes (since 1889), a local school, a post office (since 1888), police station, town administration, court house, draft office, steam mill belonging to the resident Mr. Narejki and a landing stage on the river.

Fairs take place on January 17 and June 29. The first erected Greek Catholic churches date back many years. The Greek Catholic Church of the Transfiguration was built in 1800 and has 36 tithes of land and a meadow for 30 wagons. It has a population of more than 900 people. The Greek Catholic St. Elias Church was erected in 1850 by the government and has, according to earlier figures, around 167 tithes of land and up to 2000 inhabitants. The Church of St. Peter and Paul dates back to 1842, and has an adjoining 17 hectares of land and a meadow for 25 wagons of hay. The All Saints Chapel at the cemetery was built in 1802 and funded by Grzegorz Lojko. According to Turów documents, as a propagator of the faith in the Polesie region, he was supposedly the owner of 40 Greek Catholic Churches. It is believed the Catholic Church appeared around 1414 and was funded by the Great Duke Witold. However, it was razed to the ground during the various historical upheavals. The Pinsk Jesuits built a church on the former grounds in 1804. We do not know if there ever was a Catholic parish here because up until 1863 the Turów church was an annexe in Dawidgrod. In 1884, a great fire ravaged 400 homes. The police district of Turów consists of 5 district parishes: Turów, Toniez, Chorsk, Berezowo and Lelczyce. The parish of Turów is made up of 25 starost, 1497 peasant settlements, and 5036 males who are enfranchised and own 20365 tithes of land. The parish has one town, 38 villages and hamlets, 9 estates, 1 district and 10 sacred spots supported by a historical legend. The people are well to do farmers, raftsmen and fishermen.

 

History.The Drewlan tribe once inhabited that part of Polesie covering the mid and lower parts of the Prypec and its right tributaries. The capital was Korysten or Iskorodz today in the Owruck district. The Drewlans most likely had their lords and strongholds before the appearance of the Warego Ruthenians towards the end of the IX century. One of these strongholds was Turów. According to Nestor, a certain Wareg Tur founded Turów but this is simply an etymological legend. On some old maps the River Prypec was also named Tur (Lelewel). Jaroszewicz maintains Turów was founded in 1094 but provides no back up documents. (“Images of Lithuania vol. 1, page 36). The earliest authentic information about this area dates back to 1013 when Wlodzimierz I, a Kiev Duke, gave this land to Swiatopelk, his brother Jaropelk`s son. The pious Rejnbern, head of the newly established Kolobrzeg bishopric brought Swiatopelk a wife to Turów. He settled in Swiatopelk´s court and spent his life there spreading the word of God. This, however, changed when Wlodzimierz began to suspect that Swiatopelk was plotting with Boleslaw Chrobry against him. He threw him into the dungeons along with his wife and Rejnbern. The latter ended his days in prison but Swiatopelk survived. Upon the sudden death in 1015 of his adoptive father, Wlodzimierz, he regained his freedom and after sentencing his two brothers, Borys and Swiatoslaw, to death he ascended the Grand Duke of Kiev’s throne. After Swiatopelk`s downfall, Jaropelk, grandson of Jaroslaw`s and son of Izaslaw, Grand Duke of Kiev, obtained Turów, which belonged to the Duchy of Wolyn. Around 1805, Jaropelk`s paternal uncle, the Grand Duke of Kiev, Wsiewolod Jaroslawowicz stripped him of Turów and, for a short time, Dawid Igorowicz, ruled the Wolyn Duchy and Turów. In 1806, Jaropelk returns having been pardoned. However, a few days later, he dies at the hands of an assassin. The next Turów ruler is Jaropelk`s older brother, Swiatopelk-Michal, who had been removed from Nowogrod. After the death of his paternal uncle, Wsiewolod, he takes over the Grand Duchy of Kiev in 1093 but does not release Turów. It was precisely that Swiatopelk Izaslawowicz who banished the god-fearing head of the Pieczary Greek Orthodox Church, Jan, to Turów. However, soon afterwards he recalled him to Kiev on the intercession of Wlodzimierz Monomach, Prince of Smolensk and Czernichow at that particular time. On becoming the Grand Duke, Swiatopelk reigned in Kiev until 1113 and was succeeded by Wlodzimierz Monomach. It is not known for certain whether Monomach`s son, Wiaczeslaw Wlodzimierzowicz, the later Grand Duke of Kiev, came into possession of the Turów district (from 1125 onwards) during his lifetime or immediately after his father’s death. However, it is known he had to give up Turów in 1132, in return for partaking in Perejaslaw beyond the River Dnieper, to his stepson, Izaslawowi Mscislawowicz. In 1138 during Izaslaw`s reign the Grand Duke of Kiev, Jaropelk Wlodzimierzowicz, died in Turów after returning from the wars. During wars with the Polock princes, Izaslaw Mscislawowicz seized Minsk and incorporated it into the Turów-Pinsk Duchy. This was the hour of glory for Turów. On occupying Turów around 1146, Wiaczeslaw ousted the Wolyn princes but Izaslaw lost no time in getting rid of him along with Joachim the Turów bishop of the Greek Church, who was possibly suspected of being biased.

 

 

It is precisely that Joachim whom historians regard as the first Greek-Orthodox bishop, although the position most probably existed many years earlier. After being defeated and stripped of Turow, Wiaczeslaw was recompensed with the Wolynian villages of Peresopnic and Dorohobuz and finally ascended the Kiev throne. At the same time, the well-known Andrej Jurjewicz “Boholubski”, on behalf of Jerzy Suzdalski, reigned for a short time in Turow. He was quickly followed by Izaslaw Mscislawowicz’s son Jaroslaw and in 1154 Swiatoslaw Wsiewolodowicz, from the house of the Czernihow rulers, also reigned for a short while. When in 1155, Jerzy, a Suzdal Prince, took over the great Duke’s throne he banned Swiatoslaw beyond the Dnieper and gave his son, Borys, Turow and Pinsk. His second son was given Wyszegrod near Kiev. Two years after Jerzy Suzdalski’s death, Borys and Andrzej lost their possessions. It was at this point in time (1157), that Turow was taken over by Michal Swiatopelk’s grandson, Jerzy Jaroslawowicz, a man of outstanding courage and character. Izaslaw Dawidowicz, a Czernihow Prince invaded Kiev and wanted to take Turow but Prince Jerzy resisted the allied princes. When in turn, Izaslaw Dawidowicz fell in Kiev and was replaced by Roscislaw Smolenski, the Wolyn Prince Mscislaw and his allies once again attacked Turow. Jerzy fought bravely for a number of weeks until help arrived in the form of the Kiev Prince Roscislaw. From then onwards his reign was peaceful and he was able to pass on his inheritance. Around 1162, he was succeeded by his son, Swiatopelk who, together with the neighbouring Krywiczanska princes, attacked Wlodzimierz Mscislawowicz, a Turow-Pinsk prince seated in Sluck. Wlodzimierz was driven out off Sluck and took refuge by his brother Roscislaw in Kiev. However, it is not known whether Sluck was incorporated into the Turow duchy. In 1168, Swiatopelk Jurjewicz and the Wolyn princes took part in a crusade against the Polowcy. It was he who sent Wlodzimierz Jaroslawowicz to Smolensk after the latter was driven out of Halicz by his father and sought refuge in Turow. On his death in 1190 he divided his lands between his two brothers. The Turow lands went to Hleb and the Pinsk ones to Roscislaw. However a few years after Hleb’s death they were once again united under Roscislaw, a fact mentioned in chronicles from 1228 when he fought against the Romanowicz Princes, Daniel and Wasilk. The history of the Pinsk-Turow duchy is not at all clear and cannot be reconstructed from the chronicles. One thing is certain, the region changed hands frequently between the neighbouring Wolyn and Lithuania. Roscislaw’s name disappears and in 1229 we see Wlodzimierz Rurykowicz, descendent of the Wolyn princes Danil and Wasilk, ruling Pinsk and probably Turow too. Michal Wszewolodowicz, a Czernihow prince supported by Lithuania attempted deposing him but were defeated by Prince Danilto. Later, a rather famous prince, Jerzy Wlodzimierzowicz from Pinsk, also known by the name “the Good” was ruling. A short time later, the Polesie was taken over by Lithuania and the number of independent princes began decreasing so that the few remaining ones soon ended up as subjects of the new country. However, later kings often stressed their descent “our forefathers” when bestowing privileges upon them. Around this time, the name Turow disappears from the history pages. In 1390, the Perekopsk Tartars razed Turow to the ground and according to the local people the nearby sacred spot named “Turhan-Roli” was where their main camp was situated. The second attack took place in 1502 and once again, Turow was totally destroyed. The Tartars continued onto Sluck and Nowogrodek where they remained until 1503. The end of the 15th. century sees the famous Prince Michal Glinski ruling over Turow and Mozyrz. In 1508, after betraying King Zygmunt I, his lands and tenancies were forfeited and distributed among others. It was at this time that Prince Konstanty Ostrogski descendent of the Turow-Pinsk princes received Turow. In 1514, Ostrogski gives his wife, Taciana Siemionowna, Turow for life. In 1521, the town is visited by the Tartars for the third time and two years later tsar Ivan the Terrible’s army, headed by voivode Teodor Telepniew Owczyn, entered and devastated Turow and the surrounding area. Ostrogski died in 1533 but we do not know when his widow died. However, we find the hetman’s younger son Konstanty Wasil, a Kiev voivode, ruling. The White Russian diarist Teodor Jewlaszewski and Nowygrod judge is also here on a visit and negotiating on behalf of his father. The son is hoping to retrieve the Turowski possessions for his father, the Pinski bishop. They have been occupied due to some conflict with Prince Konstaty. Jewlaszewski, however, is unsuccessful. Later, after having helped the Prince recoup Ostroga, which was ruined during the lawsuit with his sister-in-law, Beata Eljaszow nee Koscielecka, the Jewlaszewski family regained his favour and the bishop was allowed to exercise the Turow rights.

 

After the death of Janusz, the last Ostrogski Prince and Krakau castellan in 1620, Turow was ruled by such families as Sapieha, Potocki, Solohubow and others. In 1648, Turow was occupied by the Cossacks who were massacred by hetman Radziwill in 1649. In 1655, the Ruthenian army led by Chowanski captured Turow and remained there till 1660. In 1671, the town situated in the Pinsk district was tenanted out to a Wincenty Serwili. The monks from the local Boryso-Hleb monastery suspected him and Jan Blocki of brutally attacking them. The tribunal’s verdict on 29 December declared they pay the monks the sum of 2370 Polish zlotys and that they be banished. We are unclear as to the financial administration in Turow but the army repartition of 1717 mentions Turow’s royal taxation as paying 165 polish zlotys to the army. When it was annexed to Russia in 1793, a part was ruled by the Solohubi family and a part by was given to General Sielahinow as a gift. Soon afterwards English speculators, who had set up a company with the intention of exploiting the Polesie’s natural resources, bought back Solohubow’s share for 800,000 rubles and Sielahin’s for 56,000 rubles. This rapacious company, set on destroying the forestland, only lasted a mere three years. Emperor Pawel intervened and insisted the money be returned to the former owners. The government took over the Solohubow share and Sielahinow share was first bought by Lenkiewicz and later by Tadeusz Antoni Mostowski. After getting rid off the English company, the government set up an administration system involving the local people. They abused their prerogatives and this led to long drawn out lawsuits. While in the Polesie region, Kazimierz Kontrym visited Turow and wrote down his observations regarding the English company and the local people in a brochure titled “Excursion.” In 1875, Ludwik Narejko bought part of the town and lands upon which he erected a steam mill. The first Greek-Orthodox bishopric probably goes back to the times of early Christianity. The first known Turow bishop is Joachim (1146). In the History of the Minsk Eparchy, the archimandrite, Mikolaj provides a listing, although incomplete, of the Turow-Pinsk bishops. During the reign of Wladyslaw the Great, the Constantinople patriarch put the Turow bishopric under the auspices of the Halicki metropolite, Antoni. Then in 1416, after the Ecumenical Council in Nowogrodek had taken place, Witold resuscitated the dying Pinsk-Turow bishopric. In spite of Focyuszow, religious peace was attained. Later around 1448, Kazimierz Jagiellonczyk reiterates Witold´s privileges. According to the archimandrite Mikolaj, the Turow bishopric becomes part of the union from 1434, the time of the Florence Ecumenical Council. Pope Pius II mentioned this fact in his papal edict of 1458. A distinguished name appears during the last quarter of the XVI century, namely that of Bishop Cyryl Terlecki, who later became the Bishop of Luck. In 1596, Bishop Jonasz Hohol presented Pope Klemens VIII his resignation in writing at the Ecumenical Council in Brest. The last Unite bishop was Joachim Horbacki who had two suffragans: Adryan Butrymowicz and Jozef Bulhaka, the later metropolite of Kiev (died in 1837). In 1795, the Pinsk-Turow bishopric was dissolved but as the Minsk eparchy was developing at this time it was decided to annex the former bishopric into the newly arisen one. The bishops could continue using the title Minsk-Turow. The Eastern Church regards the Turow bishop, Cyryl also known as Slupnik, as a saint. He was head of the local monastery and author of a number of religious books. He became bishop in 1171 and remained in this post for 10 years. Thereafter he lived in isolation until his death in around 1183 in Turow. The archimandrite Mikolaj writes in depth about him with later additions from the Minsk eparchy. The Turow bishops lived in the monastery belonging to Borys and Hleb. It was destroyed by the Tartars in 1390 and today is the location of a cemetery and Greek-Orthodox church. According to local information in 1818, Grzegorz Lojko had a vision in which he saw the mortal remains of St. Cyryl resting precisely here. In a nearby village, Storozowce, there was also a women’s monastery destroyed by the Tartars. Mikolaj maintains that neither of the monasteries was rebuilt after the ravages of war, however there is an annotation in the acts of 1671 that the Borys-Hleb monks were still to be found in Turow in 1671. Bartoszewicz followed by Adam Kirkor both penned a monograph about the Turow Duchy.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, pp.649-652]

 

Galicia

 

Turów, Turowa: a village in the northeast part of the Krzemieniec district, near Szumsk and Suraz, does not exist under this name today. According to the Krzemieniec recruitment register of 1570 it was the property of Prince Iwan Massalski. The recruitment figures are not shown separately.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, p.652]

 

Russian Poland

 

Turow Roh: a cemetery on the grounds of the village Ryzawka in the Humanski district.

 

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, p.652]

 

This translation, by Jola Jurasinska, is used by permission.


Tuszyma

Tuszyma, in 1508 Thuszyma, 1536 Thussinia, village in the district of Mielec, on the right bank of the Wisloka, opposite Przeclaw, beside the railroad from Debica to Tamobrzeg, between the stations Dabie (17 kilometers) and Rzochów (24 kilometers). The Dabie station belongs to the territory of Tuszyma. From the east the village is separated by a tributary of the stream, Rudy, from the territory of Bialy Bór. Elevation reaches 193 meters. Together with the larger estate possessions, divided into three parts are: Tuszyma, Dabie, Pikolowka and Checina or Hicin, with the hamlet Pustkarnia, the village has 203 houses, 1004 inhabitants, 954 Roman Catholics (parish in Przeclaw, partly in Rzochów) and 50 Jews. Count Mieczyslaw Rey's portion has 12 mórgs of fields. Dabie portion of Count Zygmunt Romer, 224 mórgs of fields, 5 mórgs of meadows, 1 mórg 1,378 sazen of gardens, 7 mórgs of pastures, 2 mórgs of forests, 34 mórgs of marshes, 3 mórgs of barren land and 1 mórg 249 sazen of building parcels. Pikolowka and Checina (Feliks and Zdzislaw Bogusz) counts 155 mórgs of fields, 27 mórgs of meadows, 4 mórgs of gardens, 130 mórgs of pastures, 39 mórgs of forests, 4 mórgs of barren land and 4 mórgs 330 sqien of building parcels. The lesser estate has 680 mórgs of fields, 124 mórgs of meadows and gardens, 69 mórgs of pastures and 9 mórgs of forests. In all likelihood, the village was established in the XV century, Długosz only mentions the fields owned by the hamlet head (L.B., II, 298). In 1536, Stanislaw Tarnowski, Sacz castellan, had 18 peasants on irregular fields, an innkeeper paying a rental fee, 2 cottagers paying rental fees of 11 grzywna's, 10 1/2 pennies, 40 vessels of oats, roosters, 60 capons, eggs, cheese and so forth. In addition there were two larger ponds and two pools. Debts were worked off up to Rzemieñ. (Pawiñski, Malopolska, 503). Tuszyma belonged to the parish in Ksiaznice. The community loan office has 721 Rhenish zloty in capital. Tuszyma borders Meciszów to the south, Rzemien to the north, Dobrynin and Bialy Bór to the east. Dr. Maurycy Maciszewski

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, p. 675-676]

 

This translation, by Anthony Paddock, is used by permission.

  
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