Golub, in German Gollub, during the times of the Teutonic Knights Golau, Golbe and sometimes Goldau.
1) Golub: A town in western Prussia and Brodnicki County. It stands on the steep, right embankment of the river Drweca, which is spanned by a wooden bridge. The road over this bridge leads to Dobrzyn, which lies 3 miles from Torun and Brodnica, over a mile from Kowalew, at the other end of Poland. Kowalew can be reached by a beaten track and has much traffic being on the Wystrucki-Torun line.
In 1864, it had a population of 2,558 (in 1816 only 1,049) and today around 4,000 including the Jewish citizens. There are 1,097 Catholics, 1,461 Protestants, 335 buildings, 176 houses and it covers an area of 2,482 morgs. There are 2 churches, Protestant and Catholic, a synagogue, magistrate, post and telegraph office, customs office, salt warehouse (in 1864, municipal court (Amtsgericht) and a municipal Protestant and Catholic school. The town’s grain and timber trades are significant. Fairs, including stalls, cattle and horses, take place four times a year. Up on the hill, near the town there are still the ruins of the post Teutonic castle. According to the oldest historical information, Golub, together with the surrounding area including Pluskowesy, Ostrowite, Krazno and Chelmonie, belonged to the Kujawy bishops.
In the second half of the XIII century, Szymon Gallicus and Wojciech from Stolna leased lands placing peasants on them. Furthermore, they paid the Teutonic Order taxes and served in the war with their 5 units of cavalry (5 Platendienst mit Hengot und Harnisch). However, they were unable to fulfill the requirements due to the frequent attacks of the heathen Prussians. And so in 1289, an agreement was reached by the Kujawy bishops and the Prussian master, Meinard; the Teutonic Order took the Golub lands and the bishops received the village Lisewo on the river Drweca and the lakes Okunin and Grzywna near Chelmza.
In 1300, the Teutonic provincial master, Konrad Sack built a fortified castle on the Drweca and after retiring from his post as the first Golub commander, lived there. Here is a list of his successors: Hermann – 1306, Prince Luther von Braunschweig – 1308, Eliger von Hohenstein – 1321, Frederik von Libenzelle – 1333, Ludwik – 1337, Jan – 1343, Henryk von Stockheim – 1349, Jan Bollant – 1373, Markward von Larheim – 1376, Hartman von Koenigstein – 1381, Frederic von Wenden – 1392, Burgard von Wobeke – 1393, Konrad von Elz – 1397, Wojciech von Tonnen – 1402, Pawel Rulmann von Dademberg – 1404, Mikolaj Roder – 1407, Konrad von Buchsek – 1410, Karol von Walterhause – 1410, Wilhelm von Eppingen – 1411, Jerzy von Eglingen – 1413, Jan von Menden (vom Ende) – 1416, Wincenty von Wirsberg – 1430, Gotfryd von Rodenberg – 1433, Frederik von Troschwitz – 1436, Wilhelm von Eppingen – 1442, Zygfryd Eryk – 1449, Konrad Esel – 1454 to 6 Jan. 1465.
Information on the income and villages belonging to the Teutonic Golub area are fairly exact. The following information is taken from the Teutonic documents (see Lotar Weber’s Preussen vor 500 Jahren, 409 and 410). Manors: Golub Castle has 3 ploughs, Kielpin 2, Owieczkowo and Sortyka (Sauerteig). Gentry manors (Lehnsgueter), Karczewo, Chelmonie, Chulschau, (Cholman), Kurkocin, (Kirchdorf, possibly also Reinisdorf), Galczewo, (Gr. Galsdorf), Gaczewko, Ostrowite, (Osterwitz), Plachoty, Pulkowo, Pulkowko, Rodowo, (Rodau, Roden?), Redemin(?); 8 of the above provide cavalry for wartime.
Villages giving goods: Krazno, Zielen (Grueneberg), Lobodowo, Lipnica, (Linde), Lisewo, Nowa Wies, Ostrowite, Pluskowesy, Pulkowo, Radowiska, M. and W. Skepsk (Scampen), Reinisdorf (Kurkocin?), 537 drags of land and 8 village administrators, who are active service.
Mills: taken in, from Chelmon 1800 (?) korzec (measure) of rye and 60 kamien (measure) of tallow, from Lisewo 5 kolo (measure) and the first fullery (Walkmuehle), and W. Radowisko. The last two gave 600 korzec rye, 16 fattened pigs, and 49 kamien tallow; Polencowy mill (Polenzmuehle), Adam (Adamsmuehle), Gorny (Obermuehle), Stepski (Stampesche Muehle) and Kamienski mill (Camenz Muehle).
In 1393, the Order took in 350 marks in rents. In 1337 the mills produced 930 korzec rye in 4 months and later at least three times as much.
There were 11 parishes in the area.
In 1317, Prince Ziemowit ofDobrzynski presented the Order with 50 measures (lan) of land near the castle (most probably on the other side of the river Drweca) but soon afterwards it was taken by Wladyslaw Lokietek. (Orgelbrand’s Encycl).
In 1410, Dobieslaw Puchala conquered the Knights of the Infland Swords and seized the fortified castle. There were two castles here at that time and the lower lying one was burned by the Germans in the hope of better defending the second. This did not help and it, too, had to surrender to the Poles.
In 1414, the Order summarised the damage incurred during the war with the Poles. “The church in Golub burned down, 120 m. losses (only!), the town burned out, loss of 8519m, 8 villages in the area burned: Pulkowo, Rodowo (that is why it does not exist?), Nowa Wies, Galczewo, Lisewo, Lipnica, Ostrowite and Skepsk. Other villages suffered damages. All in all, the area lost 20548m. In 1421, the Teutonic Commander, Michal Kuchmeister, bestowed a new privilege on the town, as the old one was missing, probably lost in the war.
The town boundaries are: from Liszewo right up to between the hill and the river Drweca (bis an den Fuss der Anhoehe) and the stream, “Schamnitz” - the hill provides clay for brick making and building; from here, the “Schampinz’ rivulet and river Drweca up to the boundary of the village, Schampen, which used to be a Prussian village, and on to another stream in the forests. This stream crosses the road near the meadow lying in a deep valley. Using small devices, the people may fish all they can in the Drweca, as far as the boundary goes. The income from the stalls in town run by the tradesmen, butchers and bakers belongs to us but we only take half from any new ones arising. The brewery in town is free of payments (soll ganz frei sein). Each year, every farm (Hof) will provide us with 11 skot.
In 1422, after having conquered the city, Wladyslaw Jagiello took the castle by storm and had the tower removed.
In 1457, Kazimierz Jagiellonczyk passed the Golub castle and some others onto Ulryk Czerwonka.
In 1460, Golub was betrayed by its citizens and ended up in the hands of the Teutonic Knights. Czerwonka was the only one to defend the castle.
In 1462, 12 castle soldiers entered the city, killed the watchmen, and opened the gates thus enabling Czerwonka to regain the town. The Teutonic Knights were either killed or taken prisoner.
From the time of the Torun Peace Treaty in 1466, Golub became a Niegrodow starost in the Michalowski lands in the Chelm voivode.
In 1584, Krzysztof Kostka was the Pommerian voivode and Golub starost.
In 1605, King Zygmunt gave his sister, Anna, the Golub starost for the duration of her life. She lived in the castle and created an expansive garden, which she lovingly tended. Apparently it exists to this day near the castle ruins. The king visited his sister in Golub in 1623. Around 1640, Krzysztof Lode, the Golub starost and owner of the nearby Pulkow, had a large altar erected in the parish church. In 1648, his wife Katarzyna Lodowa, nee Eck created the Brotherhood of St. Anne and Rosary Circles and had a separate chapel built after her husband’s death (St. Wawrzyniec).
In November 1655, the Swedes invaded the town and did much damage to the castle. In 1772, Golub was annexed by Prussia and, in 1781, work was begun on the Lutheran church.
It is worth remembering that Golubin is the birthplace of the meritorious Polish linguist, Franciszek Maliniowski, whose father was Lord Mayor of the town.
Golub parish and deanery
The diocese schema of 1867 states: Golub parish has 3248 souls, St. Katarzyna Church, under government patronage, was built in brick around 1293 presently totally rebuilt; the hospice is for 4 poor citizens; 3 brotherhoods - Divine Charity from 1441, Rosary from 1617 and Sobriety from 1858, branch in Ostrowit with Jakob Dekowski the parish priest since 1863; curate 1 - Jan Rogalewski, curate II - vacant. The parish villages are: Skepsk, Owieczkowo, Sluchaj, Sokola Gora, Neubruch, Pasieka, Krazno, Lipnica, Galczewo, Galczewko, Lisowo, Nowa Wies, Zawada, Nowy Mlyn, Gryta-Kalita, Konstancyewo, Nadwielkalaka; Ostrowite, Gajewo and Pocwiardowo belong to the sub-churches. Schools: Golub 300 children, Lipnica 71; 121 Catholic children attend the Lutheran school in Skepsk and 29, the one in Galczewo. Earlier, the following churches and chapels existed in the Golub parish: 1. Holy Cross Chapel in Golub castle, built with the castle around 1300. The Teutonic Knights held services in it and it remained in existence during Polish rule. The floor was made of brick and the ceiling was vaulted. There were 3 altars, beautiful steel erections in the presbytery and choir stalls. Today the remains of the beautiful vaulting can still be seen. 2. St. Hipolit Chapel stood outside the city by the roadside. It existed in 1647 but thereafter was never mentioned again. 3. St. Wawrzyniec Chapel, a four-sided wooden building with two turrets. Stood on the hill outside the Torun Gate endowed by the previously mentioned Katarzyna Lodowa nee Eck. 4. The church in Lipnioy burned down in 1610. Building began during the lifetime of Princess Anna but discontinued after her death. 5. The church in Nowa Wies existed in 1444 but was probably destroyed during the ensuing wars because it is never again mentioned.
The Golub deanery has 10749 souls and 7 parishes: Chelmon, Golub, Kowalewo, Lobdowo, Pluskowesy, Radowiska and Wrock; 3 sub churches: Kurkocin, Ostrowite, and Zielen. Apart from the above there were also churches in Sloszew, Pulkow, a chapel and provostry in Kowalew.
There were 12 Catholic schools and 400 children attended Lutheran schools. The deanery did not have any monasteries/convents but the Golub and Kowalew castles had fortified monasteries. In 1618, there were plans for a monastery in Golub. A foundation was set up for the Benedictine Fathers near Torun and Maciej Strogowski, the town mayor, bequeathed his large corner house, a large garden and orchard with bee hives, a granary by the gates on the Drwec, his manor close to the town and 2 measures of land, close to Torun, left by his deceased wife. However, for reasons unknown, the foundation did not come to fruition.
2) Golub: The Golub royal forest inspectorate arose from the lands of nobility ( Konstancyewo) in 1852 and lies approximately half a mile north of the town. The area covers 20000 morgs and there are 4 buildings, 9 Catholics, 4 Protestants, a school, a parish and a post office. It incorporates the following sub inspectorates (Schutzbezirke): Mszano, Brodnica, Czartowiec, Dabrowka, Riebesthal, Mokry Las, Tokary, Baraniec, Skepsk, Strebaczno, Mlyniec, Kwasnik, Zaradowiska, Neulinum and Czablewo.
3) Golub: Golub Castle adjoining the Golub manor has 10 buildings, 4 houses, 25 Catholics and 23 Protestants. The relatively well-preserved walls of the former Teutonic Knight and starost castle are home to a warden and several poor individuals.
4) Golub: Golub farm was formerly a starost one but is, today, in private hands. It covers 2,574 morgs of land, has 18 buildings, a house and 10 homes, 163 Catholics, 34 Protestants, a parish, school and post office.
Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1881, vol. 2, pp. 658-661]
This translation, by Jola Jurasinska, is used by permission.