History & Culture
History & Culture
Buffalo's Third Polish Parish 1925-1963*
Sister M. Aurea Stempin CSSF
The day Reverend Ladislaus Brejski assumed the position of pastor at Assumption Parish in Buffalo, New York, he realized it would be necessary to combine all his energies, efforts and talents to continue the splendid work of his predecessor, Reverend Ladislaus Hordych. The newly appointed pastor possessed adequate qualities to do so. His experiences were varied and many. He had been assistant priest at Transfiguration Parish in Buffalo, New York; pastor of St. Stanislaus in Perry, New York, and of Assumption in Albion, New York. In 1920 at the request of Bishop William Turner, Father Brejski organized St. Valentine Parish in south Buffalo where he built a church, school, convent and rectory. In 1925, after five successful years at St. Valentine, Father Brejski was appointed pastor of Black Rock's Assumption Parish which was at this period experiencing an unprecedented prosperity and growth.1 Over six thousand Catholics were members of the parish and supported their church and school with generous donations.2 The school population totaled twelve hundred pupils and was increasing steadily.3 With the approval of the Health Department and school authorities, provisional classes were set up in the school basement and some grades were divided into two sessions.4 Recreational opportunities were available for adults and youth as well. The two parish choirs, three scout divisions, Butchers and Grocers Association, Polish Cadets, American Legion Auxiliary and the Polish Democratic Club of Black Rock added support and power to the parish.5
A wave of prosperity seemed to be bearing the Poles of Black Rock to the desired shore of comfort and security. Never had the people been more content with the present or more confident of the future than at this time. Local industries were flourishing, wages were high and wholesome social and religious lie was cultivated.
Father Brejski was determined that his parish should continue to prosper. He did all in his power to do so, displaying a keen, lively and personal interest in the affairs of his parishioners. The school children were always a great concern to his priestly heart and his relation with the Felician Sisters staffing the school was warm and paternal. To the youth and adults he offered words of counsel, praise and encouragement.6
Being a woodworking craftsman, Father Brejski helped to remodel and enlarge the convent and the original rectory. In his basement carpenter shop, he built several kneeling benches, stools, artistically carved sedilia, a three place seat for officiating clergy and furniture for the rectory, convent and school. These products of his early and busy days at Assumption aided considerably in defraying a good portion of debts and finances.7
Unfortunately, this propitious state of affairs was short-lived. The nation's economic collapse of 1929 left its disastrous imprint upon all areas of the country. Black Rock was no exception and the towering structure of Assumption's prosperity gradually began to deteriorate. Being an industrial area its economic position was more serious than elsewhere.8 As general unemployment set in, church revenues trickled to a minimum and soon it became impossible to pay off the interest on debts or to maintain the massive parish structures in good condition.
At about the same time another calamity loomed over the destiny of Assumption. Father Brejski became afflicted with a brain tumor and in June of 1929 was taken to Boston, Massachusetts, where Dr. C. Cushing, the noted neurosurgeon, performed the delicate and intricate brain surgery required.9 To all appearances, the operation seemed to be a success, and after a period of recovery Father Brejski resumed his pastoral duties. Nevertheless, this once active and enthusiastic priest seemed unable to regain his former dynamic interest in his parish and its condition. His impaired health prevented him from energetically directing the parish which was reaching the ebb of prosperity.
In this crucial period of economic difficulty, the sick priest found difficulty coping successfully with the increasing problems of debts and repairs. Soon a cloud of discontent, disappointment and depression began settling over Assumption Parish. Gradually the parish divided into two distinct factions. There were those whose deep faith and love for the church prompted them to wait patiently and trust in Divine Providence. They hoped that gradually the era of prosperity would return. They tried to understand and justify their pastor, that he was a sick man and not to be blamed for his shortcomings.10
Then there were those who were discontented and dissatisfied with the pastor's administration. They decided to take matters into their own hands. They called a parish meeting in January of 1930. A crowd of parishioners gathered in the hall to take part in this unusual event. Father Brejski faced his disgruntled people and heard the complaints, some legitimate, others false. The main issue at stake was the depleted financial status of the parish. The people demanded that the trustees compute the Sunday offerings, record the contributions, and publish a weekly financial statement. They insisted that all parish expenditures should be paid by check. In addition, they hurled personal affronts at the bewildered and grieved pastor, and a great uproar followed. To prevent scandalous rioting, the meeting was adjourned and the crowd was told to disband.11
The discontented members waited three weeks. Since no financial statement was issued, they refused to offer their Sunday contributions. That Sunday a mere six hundred dollars offered by the faithful parishioners was gathered. Some of the rebellious members dropped buttons, medals and trinkets into the collection basket, while others offered nothing. Tension, fear and uncertainty prevailed.12 Next the discontented members appealed to Bishop Turner and demanded the removal of Father Brejski. Receiving no satisfaction, they appealed directly to the Most Reverend Paul Marella, the Apostolic Delegate in Washington, D. C. The church authorities made no changes in the pastorate. Instead, the parishioners were exhorted to preserve good will, to remain loyal Catholics, and.to discourage among their brethren all actions detrimental to their souls.13
Exasperated with this response, the dissatisfied members left Assumption Church and affiliated themselves with the Polish National Catholic Church, a schismatic church founded in Buffalo in the latter part of the nineteenth century. The leaders met in the borne of Mr & Mrs Thomas Boron, selected a provisional 'committee and took steps to find a suitable place to celebrate religious functions. The first Mass in the Polish language was celebrated in the Savior Lutheran Church at 1033 Grant Street, Buffalo, New York, by Bishop John Zenon Jasinski of the Polish National Catholic Church. The initial congregation of this newly formed church; All Saints Polish National Catholic Church, numbered about four hundred persons.14
The organizing of this schismatic church among the Poles was not a unique incident in American Catholic annals. Independent groups had been formed earlier in several localities in America, not because of dogmatic but because of administrative difficulties.15 This separation had a 'two-fold effect on Assumption parishioners. On the one hand, it weakened the faith of a certain few and created division among the Poles in Black Rock. On the other hand, it cleared to a certain extent the air of tension and misunderstanding and removed the discontented and troublesome element of the parish.
It would seem that after this separation the distressing days at Assumption would end. Not so! The cancer of turbulence continued to grow and spread. As the era of depression and general unemployment prevailed, the period of financial insolvency continued. Parish debts increased and the ailing pastor found it ever more difficult to cope with the perplexing problems confronting his parish.
The financial crisis brought an annual decrease in school registration. By 1934 only 824 pupils attended the parochial school.16 Since many of the parents were unable to pay the expenses of tuition, books and supplies they were compelled to transfer their children to neighboring public schools where education was gratuitous. Others refused to sen[d] their children to the parish school due to the condition of the building. Gradually societies, organizations, adults and youth discontinued the practice of convening in the parish hall and meeting rooms. Thus, what was once a center of social gathering became a ball of memory rather than activity and what previously filled the parish treasury with a considerable amount of income now left it depleted.17
In due time, the Sunday collections dwindled to a minimum and the parish reached a desperate plight. With limited funds to draw from, the obligation of paying the $250,000 mortgage was not met. Against the annual charge of $12,500, only one-third the amount was paid in 1935. Consequently, a grave danger threatened the property of Assumption Parish.18 The matter was brought to the attention of the Bishop, and immediately arrangements were made to reduce the delinquent obligation. With the assistance of the Diocesan Chancery a sum of one thousand dollars was paid without further delay.19 This was a meager sum, and the parish continued to remain fettered to a chain of financial difficulties.
At this point, to balance somewhat this all too grim picture, it is necessary to inject an important fact. Not all affairs were unattended by the ailing pastor. There were periods during his illness, when his mind functioned properly and he was capable of praiseworthy accomplishments. For example Father Brejski directed the Felician Sisters to prepare children to present school performances for the public at a nominal admission fee.20 Likewise, the Sisters instructed young girls in handwork, such as crocheting, embroidering and huck towel designing. These works were then used as prizes, when a parish bazaar was sponsored.21 Affairs such as these were not supported wholeheartedly, and did not bring in as much profit as was expected. Thus, those who dedicated their services of time, energy and talent were not compensated adequately.
An attempt to increase the school population was undertaken in September 1935, when a Kindergarten class was organized. The total registration then increased to 918 when eighty little boys and girls began attending the class.22 In the years that followed the number attending Kindergarten began to diminish because of the required weekly ten cent tuition.23
Upon the Bishop's request, catechetical classes were organized for children of the parish who were attending public schools. The Felician Sisters undertook the task of instructing the youngsters in the fundamental principles and their practical application. A total of 340 children filled seven classes and received religious instructions each Sunday from nine to ten a. m. and on Monday from four to five p. m.24 A year later, in 1939, the Bishop requested Father Brejski to take a census of the parish district and organize Confraternity classes for high school students, since the diocesan regulation strictly required it.25 Father Brejski appealed to the Sisters to undertake the census. He placed his assistant, Rev. Ceslaus Kotkiewicz, who had experience in catechetical work with teenagers, in charge of the new parochial program.26 Unfortunately, Father Kotkiewicz did not remain long in the parish and with his transfer the program gradually declined.
On several occasions, Father Brejski permitted the use of the school and convent facilities to those in need. In 1956 when three Felician Sisters were appointed to teach at the newly organized Coronation of the Blessed Virgin Mary Parish at 34 Dewitt Street and had no available living quarters near the school, Father Brejski permitted the Sisters to share ,the Assumption Convent until they had a convent of their own in 1962.27 Monsignor Bernard McLaughlin, pastor of Coronation of the Blessed Virgin Mary parisb, paid forty-five dollars per month for the use of the convent.28 In 1957, classrooms were leased to accomodate the students of Cardinal Dougherty Diocesan High School, until a new building on Hertel Aveneue would be completed.29 Two years later, several classes were used on a temporary basis by pupils of the neighboring St. Elizabeth's Parish whose new school was under construction.30
It was in view of these efforts that the loyal parishioners were tolerant of Father Brejski's shortcomings and even attempted to conceal them. They pitied his failure to fullfill himself; sympathized with his frustrated efforts; respected his will to serve; appreciated his accomplishments; remembered his successes and forgot his failures. Thus, Father Brejski lived until his sickness took a turn for the worse, and on June 23, 1961, the hand of death led him to the portals of eternity.31
The period of inner strife which Assumption Parish experienced was a time of both plague and blessing. On the one hand the number of parishioners was greatly depleted, the progress of material growth was hampered and a general feeling of anxiety existed; on the other hand, this was a time of purgation, a period of spiritual pruning during which the weak members fell to the wayside and there remained a core of staunch members in whose hearts the glow of faith, zeal, love, generosity and loyalty was never actually extinguished. The smoke of turmoil may have clouded their enthusiasm but did not destroy it. The restrictions placed upon them may have dampened their spirits but did not quench them. At this point, only a determined and competent hand was necessary to stir the embers and thus restore the spiritual and material fervor of the parishioners.
When on August 31, 1961, Bishop Burke appointed the Right Reverend Monsignor Maximilian Bogacki as pastor of Assumption Parish32 very few were surprised. The newly commissioned pastor's reputation as organizer, promoter, planner and liturgical restorer was widely known and recognized.
Since his ordination to the holy priesthood in 1919, Monsignor Bogacki served as assistant priest at St. Hedwig's in Dunkirk, New York; St. Adalbert's and Queen of the Most Holy Rosary in Buffalo; St. Augustine's in Depew, N. Y. and St. John Gualbert's in Buffalo. Church officials recognized his fine qualities and ability to organize, lead and direct, and appointed him as pastor of parishes which were in need of an exceptionally proficient priest. As pastor of St. Joseph's in Jamestown, New York; Sacred Heart in Medina, New York; St. Michael's in Lackawanna, New York; St. Luke's and St. Adalbert's in Buffalo, Monsignor Bogacki exercised his pastoral tasks with expert skill and success.33 Consequently, he was well qualified to steer the course of Assumption Parish at this time of need.
The simple but impressive installation ceremonies held on September 3, 1961, marked the official commencement of Monsignor Bogacki's pastorship at Assumption.34 The newly appointed pastor embarked upon an onerous task, namely, to awaken the "Sleeping Giant"35 from its spiritual, material, cultural and social lethargy. His first and foremost objective was to rouse and unite the parishioners and thus activate and strengthen the Catholic way of life in the parish. These lofty ideals, however, could not be attained by wishful thinking. Some definite program had to be planned and carried out regardless of pending adverse circumstances.
The initial step undertaken in the renaissance program for the people of the parish was to renovate the physical facilities. An undertaking of this type required a stupendous sum of money. The meagre Six-to-seven hundred dollars Sunday collection was insufficient to keep pace with the parish cost of living, and still less to make available funds for improvements.36 A dynamic appeal had to be made to every parishioner to point out the need for increased financial support. Such being the case, Monsignor Bogacki initiated a weekly "Parish Bulletin" which served as a medium of communication between himself and the members of the parish. Various announcements pertinent to the condition of the parish, the necessity of renovating the buildings, and a weekly financial statement sparked the people's curiosity and stimulated their interest and desire to cooperate in this venture.37 Encouraged by the knowledge that their contributions were being put to immediate use and made anxious by the fact that much still needed attention, the people became more generous. Shrine donations, Mass and service collections and pew rent offerings increased in amount. Also, the average Sunday contributions mushroomed from four hundred to approximately seventeen hundred dollars.
The eager cooperation and deep spirituality of the parishioners encouraged Monsignor Bogacki to proceed at an accelerated pace with his plans to restore the parish hall, the church and the school. With most of the twenty-one hundred families willing to support his endeavors there was sound assurance that his projects would succeed.39 His first venture proved successful. In a short time, a large new hall for important parish functions was constructed under the church; the old large school hall was converted into a modern gymnasium; the small lower school hall was renovated and eight vacant classrooms were renewed and transformed into comfortable and convenient meeting rooms.40 The attractive and pleasant new hall drew many patrons to the weekly Bingo games which brought in excellent financial returns.41
Soon other projects were undertaken. Since the church building was in need of renovation, the cleaning and blasting of forty-seven years of soft coal soot and grime was an expensive enterprise. Additional improvements included repairs of bell towers and spires as well as activating and lighting the famous Assumption landmark clocks.42 The work attracted favorable attention of persons from all over the Buffalo area. They recognized the tremendous step forward accomplished in such a relatively short span of time. The parishioners were justifiably proud of being identified with their magnificent church which they had built, maintained for over forty-nine years, and now beautified.43
The pastor realized why two generations of children preferred public school to Catholic parochial school education and why enrollment decreased from the point where sixteen classrooms were not sufficient to where only eight rooms were plentiful. Promptly steps were initiated to remedy the condition by undertaking a complete overhaul of the entire school and church heating system. After consultation with engineers, architects and contractors, it was decided to convert from oil to gas heat.44 A series of other changes followed. An improved air purification system, elaborate changes in sanitary facilities, improved fire control measures, better lighting, painting, and cleaning made the school a pleasant, comfortable and inviting place. All this drained huge sums of money from the parish treasury. Bills mounted to approximately seventy-six thousand dollars.45 Realizing their donations were utilized for such sound and extensive improvements, the parishioners continued to increase their offerings .
Shortly after, work on redecorating the interior of the church was undertaken. Professors Michael Baranowski and Joseph Slawinski of Poland were engaged for this assignment. Professor Baranowski practiced his profession in Europe for thirty years and Professor Slawinski for forty. Both served as professors of art in the Warsaw Academy of Fine Arts. They were the only artists in western New York skilled in the art of sgrafitto, a technique of decoration somewhat analogous to etching or fresco painting. In redecorating Assumption Church they chose red, black and white colors and incorporated into their work a variety of liturgical symbols. The cost was three thousand dollars, exclusive of material. However, the parishioners did not hesitate to meet the cost, because they realized that the symbols would prove a constant inspiration to them in their prayers.46
Weekly Sunday collections doubled in a brief span of time. Meanwhile, expenses also multiplied. The liquidation of the debt became a serious, yet not an insoluble problem. Monsignor Bogacki devised a plan which aimed at defraying parish debts and eliminating unnecessary interest payments without bothersome fund raising ventures, such as card parties, bazaars, dances or fairs. He organized a completely new and unique parish financial program known as "The Proportionate Return Offertory Program." This plan aimed to raise the regular Sunday collection to an amount which would realistieally be expected from every parishioner, that is the return of one hour's salary per week or 2.5% from every wage earner. All parishioners were informed of this program through bulletins, brochures, letters and buffet meetings. Committee workers were organized to assure the program's success through personal calls on every parishioner who received the offertory estimate cards on which they were requested to indicate their future contributions.47
The physical or external renovation of the parish was paralleled by the spiritual and social revival. Previously the parish had no organization to take care of the poor and needy. Consequently, a St. Vincent de Paul Society was organized at the suggestion of Monsignor Bogacki under the capable leadership of John Lucki. At present, the Vincentians, as they are popularly known, assist the needy by offering financial and spiritual aid.48 Likewise, other new organizations were established, while those which existed previously began to awaken to a new life of activity and usefulness. The Christian Family Movement gained a foothold in the parish; the Legion of Mary began to function with renewed vigor and the Holy Name Society revitalized its zealous liturgical movement in church services. Novenas, retreats for youth and adults, Forty-Hour devotions and a parish Mission week injected new spiritual life in the young and the old of the parish.50
Excellent programs were undertaken to awaken the social life as well. Cub and Scout groups were inherited but several new ones were born. An Explorer Scout Group was formed for those boys who were too old for the regular scouts but wished to continue membership. The Catholic Youth Organization attracted teen-agers who were eager to meet, work and play under the guidance of their parish priest.51 Likewise, the Drum Corps was reorganized and brought many active young people closer to parish life.52
The need to develop programs for meeting the needs of the older parishioners was obvious. When Bishop Burke relinquished a deed to the former Marine Trust Building located on the corner of Germain and Amherst Streets and transferred the building for the exclusive use of Assumption parish,53 Monsignor Bogacki decided to use this building as a meeting place for all senior parishioners who completed sixty years of age. He appointed Stephen Stopinski as director and counsellor of the program.54 This plan was not accepted as readily as the others, since the older parishioners were not accustomed to such activities and were rather reticent in participating in the program. Great progress has been made in reviving the physical, spiritual and social life of Assumption parish. Things remain to be done. Continued patience, understanding, good will, wise planning and effective administration will stir the "Sleeping Giant" to greater and newer achievements.
During the seventy-five-year life span, Assumption parishioners have exerted a powerful influence on the Black Rock community where they were born, lived, learned, labored and died. A parish which grew from thirty to twenty-one hundred families within three quarters of a century, a parish which was built and supported by the labor of Polish immigrants and their zealous priests, a parish which withstood turbulent times, a parish which is at present undergoing a period of rejuvenation-such a parish had to produce remarkable individuals. Out of this community have come local leaders active not only in the immediate area but also in city-wide administration positions. The community and the parish can proudly boast of numerous professional people, priests, sisters, doctors, dentists, nurses, lawyers and teachers who today stand among the first in their particular callings. These people are the pride of the past, the security of the present, and the hope of the future. May future generations follow in their footsteps to serve God, country, parish and community.
*This essay is based on the author's unpublished Master's Thesis, A Historical Development of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary Parish in Buffalo, New York, from 1888 to 1963, completed in June 1964 at Mount Saint Joseph Teachers College.
1. Ks. Wacław Kruszka, Historya Polska w Ameryce (Polish History in America), (Milwaukee, 1937), vol. I, p. 310.
2. Rev. Felix Thomas Seroczynski, "Polish Immigration," The Catholic Encyclopedia,(1911), vol. XII, p. 206.
3. Stephen Gredel, Letter to the author, June 29, 1963.
4. "St. Stanislaus Special Edition, "Am-PDI Eagle, (Buffalo, New York), July 25, 1963, p. 8, col. 2.
5. Sister Mary Donata Slominska, CSSF, "Reverend John Pitass Pioneer Priest of Buffalo", Polish American Studies, (Orchard Lake, Mich., 1960), vol. vol. XVII, p. 35-36.
6. Thomas Donahue, History of the Diocese of Buffalo, (Buffalo, 1929), p. 162.
7. Concise View of Black Rock, (Buffalo, 1836), p. 3.
8. George D. Emerson (ed.), The Niagara Frontier Landmarks Association, (Buffalo, 1906), p. 127.
9. Henry Wayland Hill, (ed.), Municipality of Buffalo, New York, (New York 1923), Vol. 1, p. 263.
10. Robert W. Bingham, The Cradle of the Queen City, (Buffalo, 1931), Vol. XXXI, p. 378.
11. H. Perry Smith, (ed.), History of the City of Buffalo and Erie County (Syracuse, 1884), Vol 1, p. 230.
12. "Centennial History of the Diocese of Buffalo", Catholic Union and Times, (Buffalo; 1930), p. 63, col. 7.
13. Gredel, op. cit. Letter.
14. Rev. Emil Bogumil, ordained priest from Assumption Parish, delivered the jubilee sermon at a solemn pontifical High Mass at Assumption Church, March 17, 1963. Printed copy sent to author, p. 2.
15. "Register of Baptisms," St. Louis' Church, 800 Main Street; St. Mary's Church, Broadway and Pine Street; St. Michael's Church, 651 Washington Street and St. Francis Xavier's Church, 161 East Street, Buffalo, New York, (1874-1890).
16. Ann T. Skulicz, "Rise of Buffalo Polonia", (unpublished senior thesis, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, April, 1951), p. 12.
17. Interview with Leon Guzowski, senior parishioner and active member in Assumption Church organizations, 81 Germain Street, Buffalo, New York, 7 p. m. July 30, 1963.
18. Rev. Emil Bogumil, op. cit., Sermon, p. 2.
19. Ann T. Skulicz, op. cit., p. 19.
20. Zloty Jubileusz Parafii Wniebowzięcia N. M. P. (Memoir of the Fiftieth Anniversary of Assumption of B. V. M. Parish), (Buffalo, 1938), p. 14.
21. Land Contract filed by Right Reverend Stephen Ryan, July 14, 1888, (Files of Buffalo Catholic Chancery, 35 Lincoln Parkway, Buffalo, New York.)
22. The Catholic Union and Times, (Buffalo, New York), Thursday, September 13, 1888, p. 5, col. 6.
23. Zloty Jubileusz Parafii Wniebowzięcia N. M. P. (Memoir of the Fiftieth Anniversary of Assumption of B. V. M. Parish), op. cit., p. 14.
24. The Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, (Buffalo, New York), November 21, 1888, p. 3, col. 6.
25. Ibid., August 23, 1888, p. 1,.col. 6.
26. Ibid., January 10, 1889, p. 5, col. 1.
27. Ibid., August 8, 1889, p. 1. col. 6.
28. Zloty Jubileusz Parafii Wniebowzięcia N. M P. (Memoir of the Fiftieth Anniversary of Assumption of B. V. M.. Parish)., op. cit., p. 15.
29. Ann T. Skulicz, op. cit., p. 20.
30. Interview with Leon Guzowski, op. cit.
31. Interview with Mrs. Bernice Skupień, wife of the late Matthew Skupień who had been a marshal of Assumption Parish for many years, at her residence 43 Howell Street, Buffalo, New York, 4 p.m., November 10, 1962.
32. The Catholic Union and Times, (Buffalo, New York), May 16, 1889, p. 1, col. 6.
33. Zloty Jubileusz Parafii Wniebowzięcia N. M. P. (Memoir of the fiftieth Anniversary of Assumption of B. V. M. Parish), op. oit., p 14
34. "Registrum Baptizarum 1888-1906", (Register of Baptisms 1888-1906), Assumption Rectory, Buffalo, New York, p. 1.
35. "Registrum Matrimoniorum 1890-1905" (Register of Marriages 1890-1905), Assumption Rectory, Buffalo, New York, p. 1.
36.Zloty Jubileusz Parafii Wniebowzięcia N. M. P. (Memoir of the fiftieth Anniversary of Assumption of B. V. M. Parish), op. cit., p. 15.
37. Interview with Leon Guzowski, op. cit.
38.Zloty Jubileusz Parafii Wniebowzięcia N. M. P. (Memoir of the fiftieth Anniversary of Assumption of B. V. M. Parish), op. cit., p. 18.
39. Ibid., p. 20.
40. Ibid., p. 22.
41. Ibid., p. 15.
42. "Record Blank of Reverend James Wojcik", Personal Files of Buffalo Catholic Chancery, Buffalo, New York.
43. Album Pamiątkowe i Przewodnik Handlowy Osady Polskiej w Miescie Buffalo z dolaczeniem okolicznych miejscowości ze stanu New York (Memoir Album and a Business Guide of the Polish settlements in Buffalo, New York and vicinity), (Buffalo, 1906), Vol. I, p. 372.
44. "Record Blank of Reverend Louis Chodacki", Personal Files at Buffalo Catholic Chancery, Buffalo, New York.
45. Interview with Mrs. Bernice Skupien, op. cit.
46. Felician Sisters, Historya Zgromadzenia SS. Felićjanek (History of the Congregation of the Felician Sisters), (Krakow, 1932), Vol. III, p. 405.
47. "Assumption Parish Files", Buffalo Catholic Chancery, Buffalo, New York.
48. Felician Sisters. "Annals of Assumption Mission House", (Buffalo, Assumption Convent, 1904), p. 1.
49. Album Pamiatkowe (Memoir), op. cit., p. 373.
50. Interview with Mrs. Bernice Skupień, op. cit.
51. Reverend Louis Chodacki, Letter of Right Reverend C. Colton, March 4, 1914. (Buffalo Catholic Chancery Files, Buffalo, New York.)
52. "Record Blank of Reverend Louis Chodacki", op. cit.
53. Reverend Louis Chodacki, Letter to Reverend Walsh, September 13, 1916. (Letter on Files of Buffalo Catholic Chancery, Buffalo, New York).
54. Very Rev. George M. Roskwitalski, O.F.M. Conventual Provincial, Letter to author, May 22, 1963.
This article is reprinted from Polish American Studies, Vol. XXI. No. 2, July-December 1964, with permission from the Polish-American Historical Association.